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Atman is often translated into English as Self, Spirit or Soul. According to Hinduism Atman is one that resides in one's body and leaves at the time of death. It reincarnates in another body and is always in the cycle of births and deaths till it attains liberation. The cycle is called the cycle of Samsara in Sanskrit. Moksha or liberation is the end of Samsara

It also manifests as Atman, Antaratman and Paramatman. The word Atman normally is used to denote the Self which includes the body and mind. Antaratman is the inner self that dwells in the body. Scriptures always use the word Atman in the meaning as Antaratman. They use another Purusha to denote Antaratman. Paramatman is the Supreme Being that includes everything in the universe which is the indivisible-one-essence. It is otherwise known as Supreme Consciousness.

Jivatman is another term used to denote Antaratman. Jivatman is Antaratman which is yet to realise Pramatman.

Anatman is everything that is not Atman. Atman perceives things other than its existence. But in reality, as claimed by the scriptures, Anatman does not exist.

Aham Brahmasmi

Aham Brahmasmi is the combination of three words: Aham, Brahma and asmi. Aham means I. Brahma is Brahman and Asmi is being. I am Brahman is the meaning. It is one of the Mahavakyas  (great aphorisms) of Vedas. It is a state reached by the Atman when it realises the oneness of the Brahman with everything. This stage is reached by the Atman, only when it realises that it is none other than Brahman. The state is called Kaivalya (liberation). 



Dhyana Bindu Upanishad

Dhyana Bindu Upanishad is the 39th of 108 Upanishads. It contains 106 verses and is attached to Krishna Yajur Veda whereas a smaller version of 26 verses was found attached to Atharva Veda. This Upanishad and Yoga Tattva Upanishad contains some common verses.

The mountainous sins accumulated over many births can be destroyed by Dhyana Yoga (Meditation). Nobody is found to have destroyed the sins by any other means except Meditation. Meditation is the only way to annihilate the sins.

Pranava (Om) is the Supreme Bijakshara (seed letter) with Nada (sound) and Bindu (dot). When the Nada dissolves, the soundless residuum (Brahman) remains. In other words, Pranava (Om) is eternal and Brahman is transcending the Pranava. One who knows the transcending Brahman knows everything without a doubt.

A hundred thousandth part of awn of a grain of paddy is the Jiva-Chaitanya (Consciousness of Atman). A hundred thousandth part of Jiva-Chaitanya is Eswara-Chaitanya (Consciousness of Brahman).  A fifty-tho…

Yoga Tattva Upanishad

Yoga Tattva Upanishad is the Upanishad of yoga philosophy. It is the forty-first Upanishad among the 108 Upanishads and forms part of Krishna Yajur Veda. It contains 142 verses.

I (says the author of the Upanishad) hereby present the philosophy of yoga (yoga tattva) for the benefit of yogis. By hearing and learning this yoga, the yogi will get released himself from all the sins.

The great yogi by name Vishnu, the Supreme Being who is known for his spiritual austerities, stands as the beacon of light in the path of yoga tattva. The Pitamaha (Pitamaha means grandfather. It here refers to Lord Brahman, the deity) approached Lord Jagannath (the other name for Lord Vishnu. Jagannath means the Lord of the universe) paid him respects and asked him to explain the philosophy of Astanga Yoga (yoga of eight limbs or stages).

“Let me explain the philosophy,” said Lord Hrisikesha (the other name of Lord Vishnu. It means the Lord of senses). All people are ensnared in the trap of worldly pains and pl…

Brahma Vidya Upanishad

Brahma Vidya Upanishad is the 40th among the 108 Upanishads. It contains 110 verses and found attached in Krishna Yajur Veda. Yet another version of this Upanishad containing 14 verses is found attached in Atharva Veda.
Brahma Vidya is the knowledge of Brahman. Hence this Upanishad deals with the knowledge of Brahman.
I declare the secret of Brahma Vidya, in the name Vishnu who commands over the marvelous deeds. The supreme science of Brahman is the monosyllable Om, as declared by the expounders of Vedanta.
I declare the body, seat, and durations of Om.  It includes the three Gods (Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheswara), the three worlds (Bhur, Bhuvar, and Suvar), the three Vedas (Rig, Yajur, and Sama), the three Fires (Garha-patya, Dakshina, and Ahavaniya), the three Matras (A, U, and M), and the Ardha Matra.
The body of Pranava The body of the first Matra “A” is Rig Veda, Garha-patya (Fire), Prithvi (Earth), and Lord Brahman, the deity. (In Sanskrit, the word Brahman has two connotations. One is…