Varaha Upanishad


Varaha Upanishad is often called Varahopanishad. It is the ninety-eighth Upanishad of 108 Upanishads of Muktika Order. It is attached to Krishna Yajur Veda. It contains 251 verses in five chapters.
 

Chapter 1

Tattvas

 
The Great Sage Ribhu performed penance for twelve years as calculated by the standards of Devas. Lord Vishnu appeared before him in the form of a boar and asked the sage to receive the boon for the performance of the penance. 
 
The Sage after paying the due respects and said, “Lord! I am not in pursuit of any worldly desires which I don’t even dream of. The Vedas, epics, other scriptures, Lord Brahman and other Gods say that the mere knowledge of your form gives liberation. Hence, impart me with Brahma-Vidya that explains your form”
 
“Be it so”. 
 
Lord Vishnu continued. Some argue that there are only 24 Tattvas while others say 36 Tattvas. Some others say there are 96 Tattvas. 
 

Twenty-four Tattvas

The organs of perceptions are five. They are called Jnanendiryas. They are the body(touch), mouth(taste), eyes(sight), nose(smell) and ears(hearing). 
 
The organs of motor actions are five. They are called Karmendiryas. They are the speech (Vak), hands (Pani), feet (Pada), organ of excretion (Payu) and organ of reproduction(Upastha). 
 
Vayus are five. Prana, Apana, Vyana, Samana and Udana are five vital airs.
 
Likewise, the sounds are five.
 
The minds are four. They are Manas, Buddhi, Agamkar, and Chitta. 
 
These are twenty Tattvas known by those who know Brahman.

Thirty-six Tattvas

In addition to the above, the five elements (Pancha Bhutas) severally and Pancha Bhutas collectively counted as one, resulting in six in total. The five elements are the earth, water, fire, air, and ether.
 
The three bodies are Stula (gross), Sukhsma (subtle) and Karana (casual).
 
The states of consciousness are three: waking (Jagrat), dreaming (Svapna) and sleeping (Susupti).
 
These are the thirty-six tattvas known by the sages.
 

Ninety-six Tattvas

In addition to 36 Tattvas mentioned, the following should be added.

The six stages of the human life cycle: the birth, childhood, adolescent, grown up, old age and death.

The six sufferings: hunger. thirst, sorrow, passion, old age, and death.

The six constituents of the body: the skin, blood, flesh, fat, marrow and bone.

The six enemies or Arishadvargaslust, anger, greed, passion, pride, and jealousy.

The triad of Jivas: Visva, Taijasa, and Prajna.

The triad of Gunas: Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas.

The triad of Karmas: Prarabdha, Agamya, and Sanchita

The quintuplet of speech, grasping, going, evacuation, and copulation.

The quadruplet of volition, perseverance, misconception, and Judgement.

The quadruplet of pleasure, kindness, friendship and indifference and mediocrity.

The cardinal directions, Vayus, the Sun, Varuna, Asvins, Agni (fire), Indra, Upendra, Yama, the moon, Lord Brahman, Lord Rudra, Atman, and Lord Isvara. 

Those who take refuge in me of the form of boar that is devoid any sufferings and stand away from the other Tattvas will become Jivan-Muktas shedding off their ignorance and attachments.

Those who have the knowledge of Tattvas, in whatever stage of life they are in, whether they have their head with matted hair or clean-shaven or with a tuft (irrespective of their belief system).

Chapter 2

Brahma Vidya

The sage Ribhu asked Lord Vishnu of the boar form to impart the esteemed Brahma Vidya. The Lord who always dispels the misery of his devotees started to explain.
 
According to the Varna (Class) and Ashrama (stage of life) of people, the quadruplet of detachment and others differ in severe penance and propitiating the Guru, the capacity to distinguish from eternal (Atman) and ephemeral (Anatman), and exercising detachment in the affairs of this world and other worlds.
 
The desire for liberation comes from exercising the six qualities of calmness, self-control, celibacy, perseverance, sincerity, and meditation. The yogi should cultivate them properly.
 
Having gained control over his senses, he should give up the sense of I-ness and cultivate the I-ness in me (Lord Vishnu in the form of boar), the omniscient supreme consciousness.
 
Attainment of human birth is rare and hard to attain. Happening to be a Brahmin is also hard and difficult. Then how anyone gets liberated by the study of Vedanta and knowing the form of Lord Vishnu in the form of Truth-Consciousness-Bliss which is beyond the scope of Varna and Ashrama?
Agam Eva sukham. I alone the Bliss! Nothing other than that! If anything is, that could not be the Bliss! That which is not for me is away from me! That which is for me is close to me on its own accord! Let me never be non-existent because I am always the object of love! Let me exist always! He who sees this, He is I, Vishnu!
 
‘I am not the radiant one ‘ is the statement that suggests that ‘I am the radiant’. How then Atman becomes radiant being tuned by me if I am the non-radiant one? He, who knows that I am the Self-radiant and I don’t depend on anything else, possesses the supreme wisdom. This is my declaration.
 
Atman is complete by itself. Apart from Atman, the empirical world, beings, God, and others do not exist. The Maya or Illusion also does not exist. I declare they are non-existent always. They are the intense darkness of ignorance with their qualities of Karma (cause and effect) and Dharma (code of conduct). Their darkness could not touch me because I am the Self-radiant Atman.
 
He, who sees the omniscient Atman that is devoid of Varna and Ashrama as the form of Brahman, becomes Brahman on his own. On seeing this self-radiant which is esteemed state as proclaimed by the Upanishads, one gets liberated. 
 
The knowledge that seeks the Atman inside the body is an impediment in understanding the Atman. He, whose knowledge rests in Atman only gets liberated, even without seeking.
 
That which is Truth, Knowledge, Bliss, and Fullness is away from darkness. How can the darkness of Karma touch those who have seen the bliss of Brahman of Truth, Knowledge and Bliss and the significance of which is known by the application of words of the scriptures like Aham Brahmasmi and Tat Tvam Asi devoid of any culpability?

The man of insight will see the transcending Brahman which is the truth- consciousness-bliss.  The man of ignorance could not see the radiant sun like a blind man. Brahman which is the nature of Truth and consciousness is consciousness alone. This realisation makes one immortal. 

He who knows the real form of his own Atman as the non-dual Brahman of Truth and consciousness is not touched by the dangers of any sort. 

The man of insight always understands that Brahman alone exists which is the absolute consciousness, eternal, non-perishable bliss, all-transcending, and the complete whole and nothing else exists.

For a man of ignorance, the empirical world is flooded with miseries whereas, for a man of insight, it is full of bliss. For a blind man, the world is full of darkness and for others, it is bright.
 
For him, who takes refuge in me of the form of boar, there is no duality. Hence there is no possibility of bondage and liberation. The form of all corporal entities is Chinmatra only. They are not other than consciousness. For the bodies other than Atman, whether static or dynamic consists of Atman alone. Assume the attitude I AM THAT in all forms of existence. It is the bliss to enjoy Atman in all forms of existence. Nothing is enjoyable other than Atman.  

Brahman alone is the form of existence. Could there be anything else? He who has the knowledge of Brahman sees his own Atman in all forms that he sees in the empirical world. He is not touched by any Karma, because of his knowledge of my form.

He who knows Brahman as body-less, sense-less, omniscient, consciousness, bliss, radiant one, and as the form of his own Atman, is the man of valour. I am He. Become that one!

The seeker, having understood the fact that the phenomenal world is false, realising the form of Atman and thus having the full knowledge, becomes neither liberated nor bound.

He who meditates on me who is omniscient and who is dancing and taking rejoice in the concentration of Atman will be liberated from all bondage.  I am the nature and the form of innermost consciousness. Making salutations to me, one gets liberated.

Tvam Aham Asmi. Thou art I.  Thou art I, the auspicious divine entity. You are the endless one and me too. You are the entity of consciousness and me too. Salutations to you who is the Lord pervading all and me too who is the auspicious entity.

What shall I do? Where shall I go? What shall I grasp? What shall I give up? (For the questions like these, the answer is given).

The universe is filled with me with the water of mirage of delusion. He who gives up internal and external attachments gets rid of the mirage of delusion. As a result, he finds himself in me.

He who avoids the company as a snake, who looks upon a beautiful woman as carrion, and he who looks upon the sensual pleasures which give misery as poison, that extreme soul becomes none other than Lord Vasudeva. I only am. This is the Truth! This is the Truth! What is told here is the Truth! I am the Truth, the all-pervading Brahman! There exists none other than me!

The living of Jivatman near Paramatman is Upavasa and not losing the body-mass by fasting. (The Sanskrit word Upavasa normally denotes fasting. Etymological meaning is ‘living near’: Upa=near, vasa=to live). What is the use of mere fasting, that too in the case of ignorant? Can you kill the great serpent abiding in the interior by merely beating the anthills outside?
 ‘Brahman is there and one should know this’. This is derivative or secondary knowledge. ‘I am Brahman. I realise thus’. It is direct knowledge. In the very moment he realises his Atman alone, he becomes Jivan-mukta. The firm stance that Aham Brahma is the cause of liberation for the elevated souls.

The factors that determine the state of liberation or bondage are two: I-ness and I-less-ness. I-ness binds the subject. The attitude of I-less-ness is liberation. Neither out-ward anxiety nor in-ward anxiety are allowed to be manifested. Giving up all anxieties, be at ease and take up abode in Atman.


The world is the outcome of specific resolve (Sankalpa) only. Hence the manifestation of the world depends on Sankalpa. Give up Sankalpa and approach me and meditate upon me who is not of any resolve. Spend your time thinking of me, meditating upon of me and being absorbed in me. Realise the consciousness in this life which is made up of consciousness alone. I am consciousness. You are consciousness. All the worlds are consciousness. Keep yourself unattached by changing the passion into dispassion.

The lamp of the knowledge of the Atman that has scriptures as its source could not be affected by the syntactical relationship between the words like creator and creation which is the outcome of ignorance. 

Rejecting the state of Anatman and the state of the empirical world, get yourself absorbed in the entity that resides inside. The ether of a pot and the ether of a room in a monastery are placed in the ocean of the ether. Similarly, Jiva and God are placed in my consciousness.

Atman does not exist for me and vanishes in the end. The fact is being sung as Maya by Brahmavadins (Believers in Brahman) out of their true insight. When the delusion with its progeny vanishes, there is no over-lordship and Jiva. I am the consciousness that takes the forms of Jiva, Isvara, and others. The creation and dissolution are the reflections of Isvara. The existence of waking to liberation is the reflection of Jiva. From he Trinasi to Yoga are the delusions of Isvara. The philosophies start from Lokayata to Sankhya are the delusions of Jiva.

Hence, the seekers of liberation should avoid thinking of any controversies relating to Isvara and Jiva. Let the truth of Brahman be ascertained by the persons of volatility. They are under a delusion to the extent they are not understanding the non-duality of Brahman. There is no liberation to them. There is no happiness for them in this world. For those who are deluded, their level of understanding, whether superior or inferior, does not make any difference. 

Will the kingdom or beggary experienced in dream continue after sleep? The wise man considers ignorance as sleep. For me, ignorance and its progeny are dissolved and hence no sleep for me. I am not subject to change and the like and hence waking is also not for me. While the mind is traveling through the subtle Nadis, the dream is created. There is no movement inside me, hence dream is also not for me.

While everything at rest and the mind in darkness, not having the power vision, one enjoys the form of Atman, the glorious bliss. He who looks upon all things alike due to his acquaintance with consciousness is the man of real knowledge. He is Lord Shiva. He is Lord Hari. He is Lord Brahman.

The experience of the worldly existence is a long dream, a lengthy delusion ensnaring the mind. Or it is like building castles in the air for a long time and it is the ocean of misery. Hence in the state of waking, meditate on the non-duality of the Brahman. By the dissolution of the phenomenal world created out of ignorance, the mind is absorbed in me. Having conquered the enemies and having resorted to the six means of practice obtained by the grace of the Guru, the Atman becomes unparalleled like an infuriated elephant in a rut.

The extreme duration of the body ceases to exist now or lasting till the moons and stars exist will not make any difference with regard to my consciousness. The pot getting broken now or lasting forever will not make difference with regard to ether of the pot. The snake doesn’t bother the skin it casts off over the anthill. Likewise, the wise-man never bother the gross and subtle bodies.

When ignorance is cast off with the fire of inner wisdom, he becomes body-less consciousness by the result of the deliberation of neti neti (not this, not this). The concept of the phenomenal world fades away by the study of Sastras. By the knowledge gained, the world of delusion ceases to exist. By the vanishing of Prarapdha karma, all assumptions vanish. Hence in three ways, all delusions regarding Atman perish.

The Jiva-hood will not go by yoking the Atman with Brahman (mere assumption of Atman as Brahman). When the truth of non-duality is rightly understood, impressions of past life (Vasana) fade away. The Karma that has begun in this birth will end with the body. In this manner, the delusion is got rid of. 

The words ‘THERE IS’ denote the whole universe becomes the essence of Truth, the Brahman. The words ‘THERE SHINES FORTH’ denote the manifestation of the whole universe as absolute Brahman. 

The water in the desert is the desert itself. The three-fold world is consciousness alone when scrutinised from the point of Atman. Ignorance alone pertains to the phenomenal world. It pertains to nowhere else. Apart from the controversies about Jiva, Isvara, and Guru from the standpoint of Atman which is the consciousness alone, I am the complete whole absolute Brahman.

When the full moon of consciousness is eclipsed by the shade of delusion, rites, ablutions, and ceremonies are futile during the eclipse.

When rock-salt comes into contact with water, it does not lose its quality. The same is true with the oneness of Atman and oneness of mind attained through yoga. The oneness of mind attained through yoga is known as Samadhi.

Getting rid of the addiction towards sensual pleasure is a hilarious task. The attainment of Truth is also rare. The attainment of the state of Sahaja Avasta (the state of spontaneity not influenced by impressions any kind: Impressions of ideas, knowledge, desire, past actions, fantasy, expectations, future predictions and the like) through yoga is also difficult.  These are not possible without the grace of Guru. Sahaja Avasta happens on its own for Yogis who have gained mastery over Kundalini awakening. Sahaja Avasta is also possible for him who has got rid of the Karma completely.

Instability is the basic quality of mercury and the mind. If mercury is bound, it loses its liquidity. Likewise, if the mind is bound, it loses its unsteadiness. Then nothing is impossible. When the mercury is calcined with sulphur, it acquires the quality to dispel the diseases. It can bring back the dead to life. It gives the psychic power of levitation. Brahman is in the heart of mercury. 

The mind is the master of organs of senses. The master of mind is Vayu. The master of Vayu is Laya or dissolution. Hence take recourse to Laya. The Laya of a yogi is action-less, change-less, devoid of all resolves and deeds. The state of Laya is beyond the range of the speech and the mind. It is to be attained by Atman.

The yogi who engages himself in the pursuit of sensual pleasures does not give up his main aim of realising Brahman, like a pot-dancer who always keeps the equilibrium of maintaining the pot on her head simultaneously engaging herself in the song, the musical rhythm, and dance. 

The yogi who wants to rule the kingdom of yoga should meditate upon the Nada alone with a single pointed concentration of the whole mind, keeping all his worries away.

Chapter 3

Atma Vidya

One thing cannot take many forms at a time. Because there is none beyond me, I am indivisible. There is no one seen or heard other than Brahman. 

It is eternal bliss, independent, non-dual, endless truth and wisdom. That extreme Brahman I am. I am the form of Bliss. I am the indivisible consciousness. 

As the clouds could not touch the heights of the sky, the miseries of the world could not touch me.

Know that all is ecstasy only because all the miseries have vanished. Know that everything is the truth because the falsehood is obliterated altogether. It is the form of consciousness possessed of reflection. Hence this form of mine is indivisible.

There is no birth. No death. No coming. No going back. No purity. No impurity. No understanding. For the advanced yogis, everything manifests in the consciousness on its own.

Always assume this meditation in silence. ‘I am the truth. I am consciousness. I am indivisible that has no counterpart. I am invisible. I have no suffering. I have no imperfections. I am Shiva without a second.’

Always assume this meditation in silence. ‘I am always THAT which has no birth or no death, no joy or sorrow. I am always THAT which keeps me away from the questions like race, clan, and lineage which is the prime cause of this world of thought cycle.’

Always assume this meditation in silence. ‘I am always the complete whole. I am non-dual, indivisible consciousness. I am devoid of differentiation from Visva and the like. I am peerless all-pervading wisdom.’

The form of my existence is not affected by any influences during the three durations of the past, present, and future. The Bliss experienced during sleep is permanent and transcending all kinds of happiness. This Bliss has no prior cause. This state of Bliss is mine always.

The darkness of the night disappears immediately by the presence of the rays of the sun. The darkness of ignorance which is the cause of the bondage disappears by the goodness of the sun of Hari. Not otherwise. By worshipping my feet, men get released from their darkness. 

There is nothing else that could destroy the cycle of births and deaths. Like the rich men are praised for the material gains, men worship me who is the creator of the universe for gaining the liberation from bondage.

The world becomes active only at the presence of the Sun. Likewise, the world becomes lively on my presence. Pearl is created out of Illusion in the oyster. Likewise, the world is created out of Illusion in me.

Others discriminate people as out-cast and Brahmin and by various orders of animals and minerals, but I don’t have any discrimination. For them who have lost the directions, compass restores the directions.

When the world is dissolved by the supreme will, I won’t look it as before. The world is not the body. It is not the energy behind the senses organs. It is neither Manas, nor Buddhi, nor Agamkar, nor Chitta. (Manas, Buddhi, Agamkar, and Chitta are the types of mind). It is not a delusion. It is not ether.  There is no doer. There is no experiencer. There are no causes for the experience. I am the extreme Chit-Sat-Ananda Brahman (Chit-Sat-Ananda = Consciousness-Truth-Bliss). I am Janartana (the ruler of people). 

Once the water is agitated, the image of the sun in there becomes unsteady. Similarly, Atman is ruffled by the agitation in Agamkar (I-ness of the mind). The mind is the cause of worldly existence. Hence one should take efforts to purify the mind.

How loyal are you to the greatness of the mind? Where the treasures of kings have gone? Where are the Brahmins who received the gifts? Where are the worlds that they have lived?

Things of the past have gone forever. Several lineages of generations have gone. A thousand millions of Brahmins have passed away. The kings have faded away like the dust.

The demoniacal tendency is the misconception relating to Atman. If the demoniacal tendency is found on the part of a yogi, his wisdom will bear no fruit.

The passion and other feelings of sensory nature are completely obliterated by the fire of knowledge. How they will sprout again? An intelligent person who is finding fault in others, though he found himself clever will not be liberated.

One who earnestly desires to acquire several psychic powers and attain them through wealth, tantra, mystic formula and other means, is not the one who knows Atman. He only knows whose sole quest is knowing the Atman. Knowing Atman, he is satisfied with Atman alone and will not go after psychic powers.

The ways and means of attaining psychic power are avidya (ignorance) only. How could a man of knowledge of Atman dive into avidya? Wealth, mystic formula and other means of attaining psychic powers are not capable of giving the real knowledge of Paramatman. How the yogis who are after the knowledge of Atman, having stopped the mind and controlled all the desires, desire for psychic powers?

Chapter 4

Jivan Mukti

Chapter four of this Upanishad is the dialogue between Sage Ribhu and his disciple Nidaga. Nidaga asked the sage Ribhu to describe the nature of Jivan Mukti. The discourse of Sage Ribhu is as below.

The nature of Jivan Mukti is seven-fold. Four of them are for Jivan Muktas (those who attained Jivan Mukti). 

  1. Ethical desire. 
  2. Investigation. 
  3. Restricted mind functioning.
  4. Sattva.
  5. Detachment.
  6. The concept of matter.
  7. Turya (the state of consciousness beyond waking, dream, and sleep).
 

Pranava

Pranava consist of four letters. ‘A‘ ‘U‘ ‘M‘ and the half-syllable. Each of the letters is of four kinds: Sthula (gross), Suksma (subtle), Bija (seed)  and Saksi (witness). Their states of consciousness are waking, dream, sleep, and Turya. 
 
Waking Visva is the gross part of ‘A’
Waking Taijasa is the subtle part of ‘A’.
Waking Prajna is the seed part of ‘A’
Waking Turya is the witness part of ‘A’

Dreaming Visva is the gross part of ‘U’
Dreaming Taijasa is the subtle part of ‘U’

Dreaming Prajna is the seed part of ‘U’
Dreaming Turya is the witness part of ‘U’
 

Sleeping Visva is the gross part of ‘M’
Sleeping Taijasa is the subtle part of ‘M’

Sleeping Prajna is the seed part of ‘M’
Sleeping Turya is the witness part of ‘M’

Turya Visva is the gross part of ‘half-syllable’
Turya Taijasa is the subtle part of ‘half-syllable’

Turya Prajna is the seed part of ‘half-syllable’
Turya Turya is the witness part of ‘half-syllable’
 

The four parts of the letter ‘A’ forms part of the first three stages of Jivan Mukti. The four parts of the letter ‘U’ constitutes the fourth stage of Jivanmukti. The four parts of ‘M’ forms part of the fifth stage of Jivan Mukti. The four parts of half-syllable constitute the sixth stage. The seventh stage is beyond this.

Being in the first three stages, one becomes the seeker of liberation. In the fourth, he becomes the one who knows Brahman. In the fifth, he becomes, the great knower of Brahman.  In the sixth, he becomes the extreme knower of Brahman. In the seventh, he becomes the most extreme knower of Brahman.

In this regard, the following stages occur. 

  1. Ethical desire. 
  2. Investigation. 
  3. Restricted mind functioning.
  4. Sattva.
  5. Detachment.
  6. The concept of matter.
  7. Turya (the state of consciousness beyond waking, dream, and sleep).

Ethical desire

“I should get rid of the ignorance”, and “I should follow the scriptures and virtuous people”. These desires have dispassion as their antecedent. Hence these desires are called ethical desire. 

Investigation 

The inclination to good conduct as prescribed by scriptures and virtuous people and practice of dispassion is termed as an investigation.
 

Restricted mind functioning

As a result ethical desire and investigation, the attachment towards the objects of sensual pleasure is curtailed by the restrictions on the mind. This is called a restricted mind functioning.

Sattva

By the practice of the above and the cessation of the inclination to sensual pleasures,  the mind takes its abode in Pure Atman of Sattvic quality. This is called attainment of Sattva Guna.

Detachment

As a result of the above practices, the admiration for Sattva gets ingrained and detachment is generated. This is known as detachment.

Concept of matter

As a result of the above practices of five stages, One perceives the transcendent by projecting the mind for a longer time and experiences delight in his own Atman.  Thereby he gets rid of the concept of matter whether internal or external.

Turya 

By the long practice of the above six stages with extreme devotion to Atman and the non-recognition of the concept of matter other than Atman, one approaches to Turya stage.

Functioning through the stages

There could not be any distinction in the first three stages. The appearance of the world is seen only in the waking state irrespective of the way it is seen. Once the non-duality is realised, the world disappears like a dream and dissolves like the autumnal cloud. The Supreme existence only remains there.

On reaching the fifth state which looks like a dreamless sleep wherein everything is suppressed, only the non-duality remains. Having his mind turned inward, he is still in contact with the external world and identified with fatigue and sleep.

The seventh stage is like a secret sleep wherein all the previous impressions are destroyed. It is reached in due course of practising. There is neither a short cut to reach the extreme Existence nor I-ness of the mind nor non-I-ness of the mind. He fearlessly functions with the restricted mind with the realisation of Non-duality. 

The empty pot immersed in the ocean of ether is full of ether inside and outside and also the empty pot immersed in the ocean of water is full of water inside and outside. The conceptions grasped by the mind  (like the distinctive identification of ether or water of the pot, which is the same ether or water outside) are meaningless. Give up those conceptions of the mind. Meditate upon what remains there. Give up the seer, seeing and the seen together with the impressions they make in your mind. Take abode in Atman which manifests initially on seeing.

Jivan Mukta

Even though one is involved in the worldly affairs whether his mind is dissolved or not, he is called as Jivan Mukta if he realises the supreme existence in all as understood in the traditional example of the ether and pot. 

He is Jivan Mukta whose inner radiance is not disturbed by the miseries and happiness and whose mental state is always the same. He is wakeful even during sleep and yet does not know the state waking.

He is Jivan Mukta whose mental alertness is always deprived of the impressions of any kind.

He is Jivan Mukta whose internal conscience is clear like crystal though he outwardly engages himself in the activities of passion, hatred, fear and the like.

He is Jivan Mukta who has no ego and whose intellectual mind is not shadowed whether he is active or not.

He is Jivan Mukta who is not afraid of the world, by whom the world is not afraid of and who has freed himself from happiness, anger, and fear.

He is Jivan Mukta who has completely dedicated himself to Brahman though he indulges in a trap like activities of sensual pleasures and keeps himself not disturbed.

He is Jivan Mukta who takes rejoice in Brahman and abandons all his desires.

He is Jivan Mukta whose mind is not disturbed and who reposes in the extreme state of consciousness wherein all the functions of the mind cease to be.

He is Jivan Mukta whose mind does not reflect the echo of the world, God or the group of delusions. (The point is: the mind of Jivan Mukta is impression-less).

Attaining the state of Brahman

Brahman is the state of existence that is permanent, infinite, whole, and devoid of any apprehension. Enter into that state as directed by Guru and Scriptures and get confirmed.

Guru is Shiva. Veda is Shiva. The deity is Shiva. The Lord is Shiva. I am Shiva. All is Shiva. There is nothing other than Shiva. One acquires wisdom only by knowing Him and not by memorising the huge number of words which can only deplete the energy of the speech organ.

Courses adopted for attaining 

One who pursues the course adopted by the bird attains liberation. One who pursues the course adopted by the ant also attains liberation. (The bird here refers to Sukha Maharishi and the ant refers to Vama Deva Maharishi). There are no other means to attain liberation apart from this. 

One who pursue the course of Maharishi Sukha with courage, they will be liberated even during his lifetime. 

One who pursues the course of Maharishi Vama Deva attains liberation taking recourse to Yoga and Sankhya philosophies over several births.

The courses adopted by Sages Sukha and Vama Deva are the two paths created by Gods for attaining liberation. Sukha is the bird and Vama Deva is the ant.

The sinless who pursue the path of Sage Sukha attains the extreme state by knowing the real form of his own Atman and by having recourse to Samprajnata Samadhi either by employing the Samadhi of Sankhya philosophy or by investigation of the scriptures or by getting instructions directly from the mouth of the creator or by pursuing a method of elimination by rejecting as ” Neti”, “Neti” (not this, not this).

He who has not attained liberation during this birth in spite of having Siddhis like Anima and the rest, due to obstacles he encountered while practising Hatha yoga and in spite having undergone pain and anguish in exercising Yama and Asana, will be born again in good family, will pursue the practice of yoga again because of the impressions of yoga practice left in him and will attain liberation and the highest state of Lord Vishnu. This is the path of Vama Deva wherein the liberation is attained after several births.

Both the methods are auspicious and bring liberation and attainment of Brahman. One method gives liberation instantly and the other method gives liberation in a phased manner.

What is sorrow? What is Delusion? For him who sees oneness in all. His intellect part of the mind which has been limited by his experience, now directed towards the truth. Those who fall into his vision get released from all the sins. All those who fall in his vision in terrestrial and ethereal regions get released from all the sins accumulated over crores of previous incarnations.

Chapter 5

Practice of Yoga

Then Nidaga asked sage Ribhu to explain the practice of Yoga. Sage Ribhu proceeds to describe.

The body is divided into five regions and five elements fill them. What is hard is the earthy Region. The nature of the watery region is fluid. The fiery region is full of warmth. The movement is the nature of the airy region. The entire body is the ethereal region. One who wants to learn yoga must understand this.

Twenty-one thousand six hundred breaths take place daily. When the earth region weakens, wrinkles start to appear. Similarly, when the watery region wears away, grey hairs start to appear. When the fiery regions wear away, the physical form and hunger start to fade. When the airy region weakens, tremor of the body begins. When the ethereal region weakens, the complete cessation of life will occur. Hence for the maintenance of the life, subsistence of the elements should be taken care of.


Uddiyana Bandha

The big bird reaches great heights without fatigue. For the same reason, Uddiyana Bandha is called as such. (Uddiyana= upward. Bandha = lock or binding. By doing Uddiyana Bandha one destroys fatigue). It is rightly said as the lion of the elephant of death. The right performance depends much on the valiant of the body. It is very difficult to perform the Bandha as described. When the fire in the belly is disturbed, it gives acute pain. It should not be performed when you feel hungry or immediately after the evacuation of faeces and urine. Healthy food should be eaten a little by little at several times.

Kinds of Yoga

The kinds of yoga are threefold. They are Laya, Mantra, and Hatha. Laya is soft. Hatha is Moderate and Mantra is mystic. They should be learned in the order of Mantra, Laya and Hatha.

Eight Limbs of Yoga

Yoga has eight sub-divisions. They are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi.

Yama

The ten kinds of Yama are Ahimsa (non-violence), Sathya (Truth), Asteya (non=stealing), Brahmacharya (Celibacy), Daya (compassion), Arjava (Straight-forwardness), Kshama (Perseverance), Drutir (Willpower), Mithahara (Moderate Food), and Saucha (Cleanliness).

Niyama

The ten types of Niyama are Tapas (Penance), Santosh (rejoice), Astikya (faith in scriptures), Dhaana (Charity), Isvara Pujita (God worship), Siddhanta Sravana (Study of scriptures), Hree (Modesty), Mathi (Adherence to Scriptures, Japa (Chanting), and Vrata (oath of commitment to austerities). 
 

Asana

Asanas are eleven. They are Chakrasana, Padmasana, Kurmasana, Mayurasana, Kukkutasana, Svastikasana, Bhadrasana, Simhasana, Muktasana and Gomukasana.

Chakrasana is placing the left thigh over the right heel and right thigh over the left heel while the body is erect. (Note: This account of Chakrasana is different from  traditional Chakrasana commonly known)
 

Pranayama

The cycle of Puraka (inhaling), Kumbhaka (retention) and Rechaka (exhalation) and again from Puraka is known as Pranayama for the shrinking the breaths in the Nadis. This is why the description of the Nadis are given.

Kanda Sthana

The length of the body of all beings is 96 Angulas when measured by their thumbs. The middle of the body is two Angulas above the anus and two Angulas below the genitals. Nine Angulas above is the Kandasthana of the Nadis which is Four Angulas in height and Four Angulas in width in the form of an egg being surrounded on the sides by fat, bone, marrow, and blood. There is a chakra located with twelve spokes.

Nadis

There is Kundalini in the opening of Susumna that leads to Brahman. The Nadis Alambusa and Kuhu are parallel to one spoke and Varuni and Yajasvini is parallel to another spoke. In the right side of Susumna is Pingala. Pusa and Payasvini are on the spokes in between. Sarasvati is behind. In between the two are Sankhini and Gandhari. In the left side of Susumna is Ida. Hasti-Jihva and Visvodhari are above. The Nadis on the spokes are in clockwise order.

These twelve Nadis are the twelve careers of Vayus. When they are filled with Vayu, they look like a piece of cloth. The middle of the cloth is the Navel Chakra. Jvalanti, Nada Rupini, Para-randhra, and Susumna are known as Nadadhara and they contain rare gems. The middle of the orifice is always closed by Kundalini. In this manner, the ten Vayus travel through the Nadis.

Arousing the Vayus

Having the knowledge of Nadis and the courses of Vayus, having his body, neck and head in a straight line, having the mouth closed, being motionless, having his mind controlled, the practitioner could see with his eyes Turiya  makes the nectar flowing in the tip of nose, in the middle of the heart, and in the middle of the Bindu.

Locking Apana by constricting the anus, the yogi should drive it up by Pranava and expel by Sri Bija (Shreem). Then he should conceive his Atman as Sri and have immersion in the nectar. This is known as stopping the flow of life. Having reached this feat, thoughts of the mind are materialised. By the flames of fire in water, branches and sprouts come up. The utterances in Jagati metre do not yield evil consequences and none of his actions generate unexpected results.

Having fixed the Bindu in the path, constricting Muladhara and forcing the air up and drying up the humour, his body becomes strong and vigorous. By constricting the anus and genitals and forcing the Apana up to mingle with Samana. Then he should conceive of his own Atman as Sri of wisdom and immerse it in the nectar. Then he should perform Kumbhaka to his maximum ability, in the middle part.

After the complete union of Prana and Apana, he should think of sending it up. The acquisition of special power in the body is indicated by the performance of this yoga.

The bridge constructed in a river obstructs the water to some extent. Similarly, Aura that permeates the body is well understood by the Yogis.

Chatuspada Bandha (Four-way lock)

This Bandha is for all the Nadis. The performance of this Bandha makes the deity manifest. This Bandha obstructs three paths and opens the path of Susumna alone by which adepts have reached their goal. (Note: This Bandha relates to four paths and called as a four-way lock. Susumna, Ida, Pingala and Kuhu are the four paths. It is popularly known as Mula-Bandha or perineal lock).

This Bandha makes obstruction to all the Nadis and thereby drives the Udana Vayu and Prana upwards. The Yoga is called Samputa Yoga. This is called Mula-Bandha and by this practice alone, the three Bandhas are successfully performed.

Samputa Yoga

By the practice of yoga without break, day and night, hours after hours, the Vayus are tamed. Day after day, the heat of the body will increase. Because of the heat, food is digested easily. As a result, Chyle increases day after day. Increased Chyle results in increased humour. By the increase of humour, knowledge increases. As a result, the sins accumulated over crores of births perish.

 

Shiva and Sakthi

Muladhara is Triangular in form and is located in between anus and genitals. In there, Shiva manifests as Bindu. Para-Sakthi by name Kundalini is in there. In there, Vayus manifest. In there, is the Fire. In there, is the Bindu. In there, is Nada. In there, Hamsa manifests. In there, the mind springs up.

The six Chakras are the abodes of energy. From throat to crest, is the place of Shambu.

The practice of Pranayama

The Nadis abide in the human body. Prana abides in Nadis. Jiva abides in Prana. Hamsa abides in Jiva. Hamsa is the resting place for energy. The world consists of animate and inanimate orders of creation. Atman is devoid of variety.

The Yogi should practice Pranayama. Though he has become an adept in performing three Bandhas, he should fix his mind upon the Truth which is worthy of being known and wherein the goal is reached on knowing.

He should get rid of inhalation and exhalation during Kumbhaka (Kevala Kumbhaka). Rechaka is giving up everything on reaching the ideal, Brahman. The wisdom of philosophy is Puraka. The meditation upon Brahman is Kumbhaka. If he practices like this, he will attain liberation without a doubt.

To elevate by means of Kumbhaka, he should fill-in through Kumbhaka alone. He should conceive his body as a pot and stabilize on that. Inside that pot is auspicious Brahman.

Then he should practice Jalandhara Bandha by performing Puraka and Kumbhaka operations with the flow of Prana repeatedly.

Granthi Bheda

Assuming Padmasana in the leveled floor, having placed the legs and hands perfectly, he should perform yoga to pierce through the three knots of Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra, having reached four points and six Chakras along with Susumna. Thereupon he should meditate upon Maha Meru and should be completely absorbed in that. By the union of the moon, the sun and Fire, Prana begins to pulsate. Then Prana dissolves in the mind which leads to immortality. Gods will take their abode in the middle of the Meru. Meru will shake and Gods shake. 

Thereupon the knot of Brahman is pierced. Subsequently, the knot of Vishnu. Finally, the knot of Rudra is pierced through. On piercing through the knot of Rudra and blasting off the delusion, by the accumulated karmic balance of virtuous deeds of previous incarnations, by the grace of Guru and by the yoga performed thereafter, there comes the accomplishment of Videha Yoga. Having recourse to Mudra and Bandha, the yogi should push the Vayu up between Ida and Pingala.

Pranava

The short form of Pranava destroys sins. The longer one gives liberation. Pranava of two syllables gives wealth. These are the three ways of pronouncing. Like the unbroken stream of oil or the long resounding chiming of the bell, the topmost note of the Pranava should not be uttered. (That means, the other notes should be uttered like that). 

The short form reaches up to Bindu. The long form reaches the crevice of Brahman. The Pranava of two syllables reaches Dva-dasantha which is beyond the crevice. 

Pranava bestows grace. It bears fruit. It removes obstacles and defects.

Stages of Yoga

The stages of yoga are four-fold. They are Aramba, Ghata, Parichaya, and Nispati. 

Giving up the external functioning brought by the mind, speech, and body and thereupon the yogi begins to function internally is known as Aramba Avasta.

Prana takes its abode after piercing through the three knots is Ghata Avasta.

When Prana though alive looks as if dead and motionless, it is Parichaya.

The functions of creation and dissolution reach a state of Jivan Mukti through Atman and perform yoga. It is the stage of Nispati.

Benefits of reading this Upanishad

He who studies this Upanishad is honored by Kundalini. He becomes pure. His sins are destroyed by drinking the liquor of spirituality. He is sanctified by stealing the Gold. He is a Jiva Mukta. 

The sages see the all-pervading state of Vishnu, with their eyes stretched out in all directions, like the eye of heaven, the Sun. They, located far away from that state, wide awake and desirous of glorifying it, arouse the sacrificial fire. This is known as the state of Vishnu.

Om Tat Sat!

REF: Sanskrit Text Reference


Leave a Reply