Types of Yoga
Here two types of yoga are mentioned. Karma yoga and Jnana Yoga. Karma yoga is otherwise known as Kriya Yoga.
Karma yoga is two-fold. Confining of the Citta (Mind) to a particular range is the one part which is called Samyoga and the confining of the Citta to the range of observances prescribed by scriptures is the other part.
Jnana Yoga is the confinement of mind to the Liberation (Moksha) and the accomplishments on the path to it.
The Astanga (eight limbs) with their one-sentence definitions are
- Yama: Detachment of the body from the sense organs is Yama.
- Niyama: Continuous attachment towards the ultimate truth is Niyama.
- Asana: The state of passivity to everything is the best Asana or Posture.
- Pranayama: The faith in the falsehood of everything is the Pranayama.
- Pratyahara: The turning of the mind inside is Pratyahara.
- Dharana: The stagnant holding of the mind on a point is Dharana.
- Dhyana: Reflecting Aham Chinmatra meva is Dhyana.
- Samadhi: The complete loss of the sense of Dhyana is Samadhi.
The ten-fold Yamas are
- Ahimsa (Non-violence)
- Satya (Truth)
- Asteya (Non-stealing)
- Brahmacharya (Celibacy)
- Daya (Compassion)
- Arjava (Morality)
- Shama (Forbearance)
- Drutir (Will Power)
- Mithakara (Temperance in food)
- Saucha (Cleanliness)
The ten-fold Niyamas are
- Tapas (Penance)
- Santhusti (Contentment)
- Belief in the existence of theSupreme Being
- Dhana (Munificence)
- Hari Aradhana (Worship of Visnu)
- Vedanta Sravana (The study of the Vedanta)
- Japa (Silent prayer)
- Viradha (Austerity)
The yoga poses (Asanas) are now described.
Swastika Asana: Placing the two soles of the legs over the two shanks by bending the knees. Gomukha Asana: Placing the right ankle over the left flank of the buttock and left ankle over the right flank of the buttock in such a way the front view is to resemble the appearance of a Cow’s face. Virasana: Mounting one leg on the thigh of another leg and standing motionless is Virasana.
Yogasana: Pressing the anus with soles by folding the ankles cross-wise, one should maintain composure in the asana.
Padmasana: Placing the soles on the thighs of other legs is Padmasana. It is the cure for all diseases and Poisons. Baddha-Padmasana: Having established in Padmasana, one should hold the big toes with two hands cross-wise to make it Baddha-Padmasana. Kukkutasana: Having established in Padmasana and placing the two hands on the ground by inserting them in between the gap of thighs and calf-muscles, one should suspend in the mid-air.
Uttana Kurmaka Asana: Having established in Kukkutasana, one should press the neck with two shoulders and stretch his body in the supine posture with his face upwards like a tortoise. This is Uttana Kurmaka Asana.
Dhanur Asana: Holding the big toes with the hands and drawing them towards the ear like a bow is drawn, is Dhanur Asana. Simha Rupaka Asana: Pressing the frenum of the prepuce in the reverse order with the ankles and stretching-out the hands placed on the knees is Simha Rupaka Asana. Bhadra Asana: Placing the ankles below the scrotum on either side of the frenum of the prepuce and remaining attached to the ground with both hands is Bhadra Asana.
Mukta Asana: Pressing the frenum of the prepuce with the ankles is Mukta Asana.
Mayur Asana: Placing the palms of hands firmly supporting the sides of the navel with the elbows of the hands and keeping the head and legs erect like a peacock id Mayur Asana.
Matsya Pithaka Asana: Placing the right foot at the root of the left thigh, embracing the knees with two hands, and holding the left big toe with the left hand Matsya Pithaka Asana is formed.
Siddha Asana: Pressing the secret parts with the left foot, placing the right foot above the secret parts, and sitting erect Siddha Asana is assumed. Pascimottana Asana: Stretching the leg on the ground, touching the big toes with forearms, and placing the face on knees, Pascimottana Asana is established. Sukha Asana: It is the posture in which comfort and steadiness are attained. Those who are weak and cannot form any Asana may go for this.
Master of Asana is the master of the three worlds.
Having practiced and got mastery over Yama, Niyama, Asana, and purification of Nadis one should go for Pranayama.
The height of the one’s body is ninety-six Angulaswhen measured with his thumb. (One Angula is equal to the height of the upper part of the thumb). Prana is twelve Angulas more than the body. By the practice of yoga, one can reduce the length of Prana by generating the Agni (Fire). He is the knower of Brahman.
The knowledge required before proceeding to Pranayama
The luminous Agni (Fire) which is triangular in form is seated in the middle of the body like a lamp of molten gold. It is found in the quadrangular form in quadrupeds, circular in birds, hexagonal in crawling creatures like snakes, and octagonal in insects.
The middle of the body here referred is the region of the umbilical knot which is situated nine Angulas from the anus. The height of the region is four Angulas, the lateral width also four Angulas. The middle of this region is the navel. For other creatures, the middle of the body is the middle of the belly.
A twelve spoked chakra is there in the region. In those spokes, Lord Vishnu and other deities are found. I am taking my stand there causing the plexus of the wheel of Maya (Illusion). Jiva twirls around the wheel, one spoke after other, hanging on Prana, like spider balances itself in the middle of the cob-web. Without Prana, Jiva could not exist.
Above the chakra is the kundalini. (The account of kundalini in this Upanishad differs from other scriptures). It is above the navel in a horizontal line. It is composed of eight different constituents and is a spiral of eight coils. It regulates Prana, Apana and the onward passage of water and food. It has an orifice that leads to the Brahmarandhra (Crevice of Brahman). While doing yoga, it shines in the ether of heart in the form of a serpent when aroused by Agni (fire) and Prana.
Two Angulas above the seat of Apana and two Angulas below the seat of genitals in the middle of the body for men. For Quadrupeds, it is the middle of the heart and for others, it is the middle of the belly. It is surrounded by several Nadis, nearly eighty thousand Nadis. Among them, Susumna is firmly established. It is placed inside in the middle of the umbilical knot extends straight up to Brahmarandhra. It looks like fine fiber in the form of a lotus stalk and is gleaming as a streak of lightning. Its presiding deity is Lord Vishnu and it leads to Brahma Loka, the abode of enlightenment. Nadis Ida and Pingala stand at the left and right of Susumna. Ida originates from the navel and terminates at the left nostril and Pingala with the same origin terminates at the right nostril. Gandhari and Hasti-Jihva are the Nadis stand at the front and rear side of Susumna terminate at the left and right eyes. Pusa and Yasasvini are the Nadis originate from the same region and terminate at the left and right ears. Alambusa heads downwards and terminates at the anus. Subha Nadi extends up to the tip of the genitals. Kausiki goes down and terminates at Big toes. There are seventy-two thousand Nadis in total comprisingSthula (that can be identified physically) and Suksma (that can be observed but cannot be identified) Nadis originating from the same source and countless branches of them like the Nadis of the leaf of Aswatha tree (fig tree).
Prana Vayus (vital air) are tenfold.
- . Prana
Of these, the first five are primary Nadis. Of them, the first two more important Nadis. Of these two, Prana is the most important Nadi because it carries the Jiva. Middle of the mouth, nose, heart, and navel are the abodes of Prana. Apana travels in the anus, genitals, thighs, and knees. Samana pervades the whole body. Udana resides in the joints of the legs and hands. Vyana in the two arms, thighs, hip, ankles, shoulders, and throat. The other five Vayus are placed in the skins, bones, and other parts of the body. The water, food, and other liquids are assimilated in the stomach. The Prana separates them into various constituents. The Apana evacuates wastewater and food. The actions of Prana and Apana are done by Vyana. Anything that remained in the body is raised up by Udana. Samana does the work of nourishment to the body. Naga performs belching. Kurma aids in the functioning of the opening and closing of the eyes. Likewise, Krikara functions for eyes. Devadatta does the work of seep. Dhananjaya performs the work of swelling. It functions even after death.
Having gained this knowledge of Nadis and Vayus, one should make his endeavors towards the purification of Nadis.
Having given up all worldly attachments and procured the necessary things for the various stages for yoga, the yogi should choose a secluded spot for practice. The width of the seat should be twice the height. It should be covered with Darbha, Kusa grass and the skin of a black antelope. Having comfort in his Asana like Swastika Asana, he should assume his seat.
Assuming his Asana, keeping his body erect, mind alert and at ease, with his eyes fixed on the tip of the nose, teeth not touching the other row of teeth, tongue fixed to the palate, with his head slightly inclined downwards, with his hands in Chin-mudra, one should begin Pranayama.
Expiration, Inspiration, Retention, and expiration are the four processes of Pranayama.
He should press the right nostril with the right thumb and gradually exhale through the left nostril. Then inhale through the left nostril for sixteen matras, retain for a count of sixty-four Matras and exhale through the right nostril for thirty-two matras. The process should be repeated again and again in the reverse and direct order. That means after exhaling through the right nostril, he should inhale through the same nostril and repeat the process.
By doing this practice, all the Nadis are filled with Prana and the body becomes like a pot filled with air. The ten Vayus are in motion and the lotus of the heart will become full-blown. In there, the yogi could see the Atman, the Ever Pure Lord Vasu Deva.
He should practice up to eighty Kumbhakas at a time, four times daily at dawn, mid-day, evening, and midnight. One who does this for a single will destroy all his sins. Three years of such practice will make the yogi an accomplished adept. For him, Prana and senses will be under his control. He will become radiant, strong, and robust with little sleep and moderate food. He will conquer unnatural death and attain longevity.
During the practice, he who experiences profuse sweat is of an inferior type. For him, all sins and ailments are destroyed.
He who experiences a tremor of the body is of medium type. For him, all sins, ailments, and incurable diseases are destroyed.
He who experiences levitation is of a superior type. He will have a light body, pass a small amount of urine, and evacuate a negligible amount of fecal matter. He will survive on moderate food. He is always alert and has command over his sense organs. He has a quick intellect and penetrating vision of past, present, and future. He is the very master of himself.
He who has given up Rechaka, Puraka and performs Kumbhaka alone at all the three Sandhya-s (dawn, mid-day, and Twilight), will find nothing beyond his reach.
The yogi should project his prana and mind (Pranayama with Dharana) to the points of the knot of the navel, the tip of the nose, and big toes at Sandhya-s or always. By doing so, he will get rid of the clutches of all diseases and fatigue. By such Dharana on the knot of the navel, all diseases of the belly are cured. By Dharana on the tip of the nose, longevity and lightness of the body are gained. He who drinks the air after drawing it with his tongue at the time of Brahma Muhurta (4.30 am to 5.15 am) for three months is bestowed with great power of speech. Six months of practice will bestow him with the destruction of great disorders. By Dharana on the part of the body afflicted with the disease, that part of the body will get cured.
By controlling the mind, Prana can be controlled. The procedure for controlling the mind is explained. By controlling the external causes for the stimulation of sense organs (Sanmukhi mudra), one should calm his mind and draw up the Apana over the belly. By closing the orifices of the sense organ by hand and other prescribed methods, one can control his mind which results in the control of Prana.
There are three primary Nadis, Susumna, Ida, and Pingala. Normally Prana goes either through Ida or Pingala. Course through them is changed by turns. Prana going through Susumna is possible only in the case of yogis. For others, Prana goes through the right nostril and left nostril alternatively.
Likewise, the yogi can control the flow of Prana for any period of time he chooses. By the well-controlled mind and Prana and by observing the signs of vibrations at his limbs like his big toes, he can predict even his time of death. If throbbing ceases at his big toes of feet and thumbs of hands, his life is assured for at least one year. If it ceases at his ankles and wrist, the period of his life is only six months. In the elbow, he will live for only three months. In the armpits and lateral part of genitals, one month is his lifetime. Any good signs are seen along with, half-a-month is the time. If it is in the belly, it is ten days only. If he sees radiance like fire-fly along with, five days is mentioned. If he could not see the tip of the tongue, he will survive for three days only. If this symptom is observed when a flame is seen, he can count two days. Knowing his lifetime by observing the above signs, go for his final prayer, meditation for the attainment of the final merger with Paramatman.
Projecting the Prana at eighteen seats (Marma Sthana) of the body and changing the seat from one to another is called Pratyahara. The eighteen Marma Sthana are
- Big toes of the feet
- Roots of thighs
- Root of hands
- The root of the palate
- The root of the nose
- The root of the forehead and upper part
The consistent concentration of the mind along with Yama and other limbs of yoga on Pancha Bhuta (Five Elements)and their Parts in the body is Dharana which is the means for crossing the ocean of life.
From knee to the feet is the region of Prithvi (Earth). The Goddess of the earth should be meditated upon for Five Ghatikas (5*24 minutes) as quadrangular in shape, yellow in color, holdingVajrayutha in her hand.
From hip to the knee is the region of Apas (Water) which is crescent in form and Silver white is her color. Having filled the Prana in the region, it should be meditated upon for ten Ghatikas (4 hours).
From navel to the hip is the region of Agni (Fire). It should be meditated upon as a red flaming fire for fifteen Ghatikas (Six Hours), by performing Kumbhaka in that region.
From navel to the nose the region of Vayu (Air). By performing Kumbhaka in that region, it should be meditated upon as the shape of a sacrificial Altar with a color of smoke for twenty Ghatikas (Eight Hours).
From nose to the Brahmarandhra is the region of Akash (ether). By performing Kumbhaka there, it should be meditated upon as the color of the ether with the brightness of Collyrium.
Deity Anirudha with four hands and wearing a crown should be meditated upon in the region of Prithvi. Lord Narayana in the region of Apas, Lord Pradyumna in the region of Agni, Lord Samraksana in the region of Vayu, and Lord Vasudeva in the region of Akash should be meditated upon. He who is going in this direction will reach the final abode.
Having restrained the organs of senses and action, assuming the Yogasana as said earlier, placing the hands in Hridayanjali mudra in the region of heart, fixing his eyes on the tip of the nose, having the rows of teeth not touching each other, having body erect and mind under control and with pure intellect one should ruminate on Lord Vasudeva, the Supreme Atman as the deity of bestowing salvation. For him who meditates like this for one Yama (3 hours) by performing Kumbhaka, the sins accumulated over seven previous births will be destroyed.
The yogi should assume the functioning of waking state starting from navel to the heart, the functioning of dreaming state at the throat, the functioning of sleeping state at the palate, the functioning of the fourth state Turya is fixed in the brow and beyond the fourth state Turyatita as transcended Brahman at Brahmarandhra. Atman is Turya and Lord Vishnu is Turyatita.
The yogi should meditate on the Vishnu, seated in the lotus of the heart with the radiance of thousands of Suns. Lord Vishnu should be meditated upon as the universe, as the clear ether, who has several shapes merged in one, several faces and shoulders with weapons and several colors with the radiance of Suns. All functioning of his mind will cease to be.
The yogi should meditate on the imperishable consciousness seated in the lotus of the heart in the form of a kadamba flower beyond Turya like a lamp in the windless place, endless and full of bliss and dazzling like a gem. For him who meditates like this, the liberation is in his palm.
He who meditates the deity as the form of the universe in the lotus of his heart, the deity shines before his very eyes. Aham Brahmasmi (I am the Brahman) is an attitude maintained with reference to Jivatman as well as Paramatman and the both. This is known as Samadhi that is devoid of all functioning. He attains the Brahman and never goes back to the worldly affairs. He will attain peace in his mind after knowing the underlying truth like fire exhausted without fuel. After finding nothing to grasp, the yogi will gain the knowledge of seeing the universe as the aggregate of illusions and dreams and get himself dissolved in the transcendent existence. He who treats this worldly life as a dream and strongly believes in the existence of Atman attains liberation
Reference: Sanskrit Text Reference