Table of Contents
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Darshana Upanishad: Chapter One: Ashtanga Yoga: Yama
- 3 Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Two: Niyama
- 4 Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Three: Asana
- 5 Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Four: Nadi and Prana
- 6 Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Five: Purification of Nadis
- 7 Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Six: Pranayama
- 8 Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Seven: Pratyahara
- 9 Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Eight: Dharana
- 10 Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Nine: Dhyana
- 11 Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Ten: Samadhi
Darshana Upanishad is also known as Darshanopanishad, Yoga Darshana Upanishad, or Jabala Darshana Upanishad. It is one of the twenty Yoga Upanishads and the ninetieth of 108 Upanishads of Muktika Upanishad order and found attached to Sama Veda.
This Upanishad consists of 109 verses in ten chapters and mainly deals with Ashtanga Yoga.
This Upanishad is the dialogue between the great Sage Dattatreya who is the four-handed Maha Vishnu himself and who is the king of yoga territory and his devoted disciple and the great sage Sankriti.
Darshana Upanishad: Chapter One: Ashtanga Yoga: Yama
When the sage Dattatreya was alone, Sankriti approached his Guru and saluted him with folded hands with great modesty and asked him to explain in detail the yoga of eight limbs, the knowledge of which would make him become a Jivan-Mukta.
The ten types of Yama are Ahimsa (Non-violence), Sathya (Truth), Asteya (Non-stealing), Brahmacharya (Celibacy), Daya (Compassion), Arjava (Straight-forwardness), Kshama (Perseverance), Drutir (Willpower or Firmness), Mithahara (Moderate food) and Saucha (Cleanliness).
Ahimsa – Non-Violence
The non violence is verily the penance. It is the non-indulgence in violence by the mind, words, and body in accordance with the injunctions of the scriptures. For a scholar in scriptures, the best of non-violence is the strong belief that Atman transcends all, which is impartial and beyond the grasps.
(Note: He who believes that Atman exists in all, sees Atman in everyone and everything he interacts with. He treats all as his own Atman. If he intends violence against anyone, it is violence against his own self. This belief makes him not to indulge in violence. This is the best type of Non-Violence since there is no scope for violence at all).
Sathya – Truth
The perception of objects seen, heard, smelt by the eyes and other organs of senses alone is true. All that exists is the Supreme Brahman. It could not be otherwise. The strong belief in this fact is the best truth for those who have crossed the ocean of Vedanta.
Asteya – Non-stealing
The complete abstinence of the mind from cereals, gems, gold, and the pearl belonging to others is non-stealing as known by the noblemen. For those who know Atman, the great non-stealing is the abstinence from dealing with Atman as being Anatman.
(Note: Anatman means that which is not Atman. In reality, Anatman does not exist. For those who don’t have the real knowledge of Atman, Atman and Anatman are two separate and distinct things. For him who knows, the abstinence from the belief that there exist Atman and Anatman is the Non-stealing. This is the best Non-stealing).
Brahmacharya – Celibacy
The non-indulgence in any contact with women by means of mind, speech, and body is celibacy. It applies to one’ own wife too except for the period immediately after mensuration. The constant application of mind to the state of becoming Brahman is the Celibacy.
Daya – Compassion
The indulgence in other beings by mind, body, and speech as towards one’s own self is compassion as declared by the scholars of Vedic literature.
Arjava – Straight-forwardness
The uniformity in treating one’s own son, friend, wife, enemy, and own self in all walks of life is Arjava.
Kshama – Perseverance
Kshama is not losing temper of mind, body, and speech even when provoked by enemies.
Drutir – Willpower
The downing of wisdom that the complete freedom from the worldly clutches is possible only through the Scriptures is the firmness or imperviousness. The unswerving belief “I am Brahman, nothing other than that” is Drutir.
Mithahara – Moderate Food
Leaving off a quarter of food which is purely for the attainment of success in yoga is Moderate Food.
Shaucha – Cleanliness
External cleanliness is the getting rid of the impurities of the body whereas the internal cleanliness that relates to the mind is the meditation. Scholars say that cleanliness constitutes the knowledge “I am Pure”. The body is extremely impure whereas Atman is Pure. Understanding the difference between them, to which of them purity should be prescribed?
Fools enjoy external purity ignoring the purity of internal awareness. It is like getting hold of a clod of the earth leaving off the gold.
Atman is Brahman
For him, who has complete satisfaction with the nectar of knowledge and who has discharged his duties, nothing is left to be done. If at all, there is anything that is left, he has no complete knowledge of the truth. For him, who knows Atman, there remains nothing to be done even in the three worlds.
Hence, with all your effort, have recourse to non-violence and other means. By the knowledge so acquired, know the truth Atman is none other than the eternal Brahman.
Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Two: Niyama
Tapas (Penance), Santosha (rejoice), Astikya (faith in scriptures), Dhaana (charity), Isvara Pujita (God worship), Siddhanta Sravana (study of scriptures), Hree (Modesty), Mathi (Adherence to Scriptures) , Japa (Chanting) and Vrata (oath of commitment to austerities) are the types of Niyama.
Let me explain in detail.
Tapas – Penance
The emaciation of the body by religious penance with regard to the phase of the moon and the like as prescribed by the scriptures is said to be Tapas.
What is Liberation? How can it be attained? What makes anyone attain the wheel of births and deaths? For the learned, the inquiries like these which give insight into the importance of the inner things are Tapas.
Santosh – Rejoice
The accidental acquisition of any gain in daily life gives pleasure. The wise men are bent on the acquisition of wisdom which is termed as Santosh. But the highest order of Santosh is getting rid of all attachments till one realizes Brahman.
Astika – faith in scriptures
Astika is the faith in Sruti and Smriti. (Note: Sruti refers to things being remembered and Smriti refers to Vedas. Sruti changes according to the ages and Smriti is eternal).
Dhaana – Charity
The charity by way of giving away of pecuniary things earned by righteous means to persons who follow the path of scriptures or whatever else they give is known as Dhaana.
Isvara Pujita -God Worship
Having a mind free from passion, a speech devoid of falsehood by foul and other means, and action devoid of violence is Isvara Pujita or God Worship.
Siddhanta Sravana – Study of Scriptures
One should understand the reality of existence, the eternal wisdom, the extreme bliss, and the extreme reality that exists inside. This is the study of Truth expounded by the Upanishads.
Hree – Modesty
The shyness felt in doing the act that is inferior according to the concepts of Vedas and the world is Hree or Modesty.
Mathi – Adherence to Scriptures
The committed belief in things enjoined in Vedas is Mathi or adherence to scriptures. One should keep himself away from anything against the guidelines, even though it is directed by his Guru.
Japa – Chanting
The chanting of Mantra in accordance with Vedas is Japa. For this, there are rules in Vedas, Kalpa Sutras, Dharma Sastras, Purana, and Ithihasas (Epics and scriptures).
Japa is of two kinds: Oral Chanting and Mental Chanting. Oral chanting is also of two kinds: muttered Chanting and Chanting aloud. Mental Chanting is also of two kinds: Chanting by contemplation and Chanting by meditation.
The muttered chanting is a thousand times better than loud chanting. The loud chanting will give results as prescribed in the scriptures. If the mantra chanted is heard by the persons of low caliber, it becomes devoid of bestowing the expected results.
Vrata is not explained in this Upanishad. ( Note: Vrata is the practice of oaths of commitment to the performance or non-performance of specific activities as austerity for a specific period of time).
Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Three: Asana
Placing crosswise the two soles of the feet between the knees and thighs and keeping the body, neck, and head in a straight line is Svastikasana.
Placing the right ankle by the side of the left buttock and likewise left ankle by the right side is known as Gomukhasana.
Placing the two soles of the feet over the two thighs and holding the two big toes with two hands from behind the body is known as Padmasana which will destroy the fear of diseases.
Placing left foot over the right and keeping the body erect and even is Virasana.
Simhasana is not explained in the Upanishad.
(Note: Placing the two ankles in the sides of the perineum – right ankle on the left and left on the right, placing the hands on the knees with fingers spread out, showing his face distinctly by opening the mouth to the fullest extent and keeping the mind under control by casting the sight on the tip of the nose is Simhasana)
Placing the two ankles by the sides of the perineum and firmly holding the sides of the feet to become motionless is Bhadrasana which will destroy the poison and diseases.
Placing the right side of the perineum with the left ankle and the left side with the right ankle is Muktasana. The genitals should be placed over the left ankle which should be placed over the right ankle.
Placing the two palms on the ground, placing the tip of the elbows by the sides of the navel, lifting the head and the legs upwards, and floating in the air like a stick with the single-pointed mind is Mayurasana that destroys the sins.
In which posture, comfort, and courage are attained, that posture is known as Sukhasana meant for weak people.
By mastering the postures, one can control the three worlds. After having mastery over Asana, one should resort to Pranayama.
Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Four: Nadi and Prana
For anyone, one’s body is 96 Angulas when measured with his own thumb. In the middle of the body is the abode of fire shining like molten gold. For humans, it is triangular in shape located two Angulas above the anus and two Angulas below the genitals.
Know the Center of the body! The Kandasthana is located nine Angulas from Muladhara and it stretches out four Angulas in diameter. It looks like the egg of a hen and placed inside a sheath. In the middle of it is the navel.
The Nadi located in the middle of the knot of the navel is Susumna. Seventy-two thousand Nadis stand around it. Among them, fourteen Nadis are important.
Of these, three are more important. Among the three, one is the most important. That is Susumna known as Brahma-Nadi as called by the learned. Susumna is attached to the Vertebral column known as Vina-Danda that is made up of bones and extends up to the skull.
The seat of Kundalini is two Angulas below the navel. The form of Kundalini is made up of eight constituents. She regulates the functions of Vayus as her allotted function. Also, she regulates the functions of the passage of food and drinks by encircling the sides of the navel with her own mouth which is the aperture of Brahman.
Ida stands on the left of Susumna and Pingala stands on the right. Sarasvati and Kuhu stand on the sides. Gandhari and Hasti-jihva stand at the rear and front of Ida. Pusa and Yajasvini are at the rear and front of Pingala.
Visvodara stands in between Kuhu and Hasti-jihva. Varuna stands in between Yajasvini and Kuhu. Yajasvini is in between Pusa and Sarasvati. Sankini is between Gandhari and Sarasvati. Alambusa extends up to the Anus from the middle of the knot of the navel. Kuhu is at the front of Susumna.
Pingala extends up to the right nostril and Ida to the left nostril. Yajasvini goes up to the big toe of left foot. Pusa goes up to left eye by standing behind Pingala.
Payasvini to the right ear. Sarasvati goes to the tip of the tongue. Hasti-jihva to the big toe of the right foot. Sankini to the end of the left ear. Gandhari to the right eye. Visvodara is located in the knot of the navel.
Vayus are ten in number. They are
These Vayus flow through all the Nadis. Of them, the first five are important. Among these, the first two are more important. Among these two, Prana is the most important.
Prana always presents in the middle of the neck, nose, navel, and heart.
Apana is always present in the middle of the anus, thighs, knees, the whole belly, navel, hip, and shanks. Vyana is always present in the middle of the ears and eyes, at the joints of shoulders and neck, wrist and the throat.
Udana is present in legs and hands.
Samana pervades all parts of the body, without any doubt.
The second five Vayus starting from Naga are present in skin, bones and the like.
The Functions of Vayus
The functions of Prana are the inhalation, exhalation, and coughing. The works of Apana are the evacuation of feces and urine. Samana pulls everything to the proximity. Udana lifts things up, without any doubt. Vyana causes clashes.
Naga does belching. Dhanjaya swelling. Kurma does the work of shutting the eyes. Krkara is making oneself hungry. Bringing sleep is the work of Devadatta.
The Deities of Nadis
Siva is the deity of Susumna. Hari is for Ida. Brahman is for Pingala. Viraj is for Sarasvati. Pusan is for Pusa. For Hasti-jihva, Varuna is the deity. For Yajasvini, the Sun. For Alambusa, Varuna. For Kuhu, the God of hunger. For Gandhari and Sankini, the moon is the deity. Prajapati is the deity of Payasvini. Pavaka is for Visvodara.
The movement inside the Nadis
The moon always travels through Ida. Likewise the sun through Pingala.
The passage of Vayu from Pingala to Ida is known as the Northern course and Ida to Pingala is the southern course.
When Prana reaches the junction of Ida and Pingala, it is a new moon in the body.
When Prana enters Muladhara, it is said to be the first equinox by the dedicated performer of penance and when Prana enters the cranium, it is the last equinox of the performer.
All inhalations and exhalations are the passage of months. When the Prana reaches Kundalini through Ida, it is said to be the lunar eclipse. If it is through Pingala, it is a solar eclipse.
Pilgrimage places inside the body
Sri-Parvata is at the crest. Kedara in the forehead. Benares is at the junction of brows and nose. Kurushetra is at the chest. Prayaga is at the heart chakra. In the middle of the heart is Chidambaram. Kamalalaya is in Muladhara.
Having abandoned the pilgrimage waters inside the body and resorting to external waters of pilgrimage places is like going after broken pieces of glass having abandoned the gems in hands.
The pilgrimage resort of abstract meditation is the supreme resort that is the proper remedy for all the sins. The wife is caressed with one focus and the daughter is caressed with a different focus.
The yogi, having faith in his own Atman, should not resort to pilgrimage waters nor Gods made of wood and the like.
The internal pilgrimage resort is by far superior to external pilgrimage resorts. The Thirtha (water of the pilgrimage places) of Atman is the greatest Thirtha. Other Thirthas have no significance.
If the internal Thirtha of Chitta (mind) is contaminated, it cannot be purified by ceremonial baths and ablutions like a liquor-pot are not purified even after hundreds of washings with water.
A man becomes pure (bodily) by bathing at places like Varanasi during solstices, equinoxes, eclipses, and at intervening periods always.
The Thirtha flowing from the washed feet of great men who are in pursuit of the true knowledge and attainment of yoga, it is the Thirtha for the purification of the contaminated mind of the ignorant. (Note: It means that only the grace of Guru purifies).
Shiva is firmly established in the body. The fools seek Shiva in the woods, stones, sacrifices, chanting, charity, and sacred waters. It is like the person who serves food licks his elbow after throwing off the ball of food. (Giving up Shiva who stands inside and seeking him externally).
The yogis look for Shiva inside and not in images that have been created for ignorant people to conceive the Supreme Being.
He who sees the eternal, real, non-dual, omniscient, and bliss Brahman as his own Atman knows that. Always realize with the help of your own mind ” I am the Atman”, giving up the cluster of Nadis and the human state on your own accord.
On seeing the almighty, incorporeal, blissful, and eternal Brahman in all the bodies, the yogi fortifies himself and does not experience grief. By the strength of his wisdom, the ignorance that produces the difference between Atman and Brahman is altogether lost.
What is the difference between Atman and Brahman? There exists no difference.
Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Five: Purification of Nadis
Sage Sankriti asked Sage Dattatreya to explain the purification of Nadis by means of which one can attain Jivan-mukti meditating constantly.
Dattatreya proceeds to explain briefly the mode of purification.
The aspirant having regulated his actions and conducts in line with the prescriptions of the scriptures, being devoid of desires and volition, having endowed with the eight limbs of yoga starting from Yama, being in tranquil, having resorted to the ultimate truth, and having confirmed in his own self properly instructed by the enlightened should resort to a Math (ancient place for practice) either at the top of a hill or on the banks of a river, or under Bilva tree or at a forest which is pleasant and clean.
Then he should assume a posture facing east or north with his neck, head and body erect in a straight line, having closed his mouth and eyes, becoming motionless and start the yoga practice to see with his eyes the tip of the nose, the disc of the moon in the middle of the Bindu, the fourth state of consciousness, and the nectar that falls down.
Inhaling the Prana through the left nostril and keeping it in the belly visualizing the fire in the middle of the body, he should meditate on the seed of fire (“Ram”) with Bindu and Nada. Then he should exhale the Prana through the right nostril. Again he should inhale through the right nostril and meditate on the seed of the fire. Then he should exhale the Prana through the left nostril.
He should practice this six times at three junctions of the day for three to four days (uniformly for each day).
By constantly following this, he attains purification of the Nadis that reflects in the lightness of the body, glowing of fire in the belly and the clear manifestation of sound. The symptoms are the indications for successful mastery. He should continue the practice until he sees the symptoms.
Then he should proceed to purify his Atman. The true nature of Atman is that it is always pure, eternal, self-luminous and is always in the form of happiness. By the impact of ignorance, it is seen as impure. By the impact of wisdom, its purity is seen. He alone is pure who washes away the mud of impurity with the water of true knowledge. Not others who are bound by Karma.
Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Six: Pranayama
Sage Dattatreya proceeds to present the description of Pranayama.
Pranayama consists of Rechaka, Puraka, and Kumbhaka which are in the form of the triplets of the letters. Pranava is one such form of the triplet. Pranayama is made up of that.
He should Inhale through the left nostril visualizing the form of the letter “A” for the duration of sixteen Matras.
Thereupon he should retain the Prana in the belly for the duration of sixty-four Matras visualising the form of the letter “U” and muttering the Pranava mentally.
He who is intent on this should hold the air to his maximum convenient capacity. (Note: This means that the said proportion of Rechaka, Puraka, and Kumbhaka should be maintained without any strain on the part of the performer. That is why the ratio 16:64:32 is prescribed).
Then he should exhale through right nostril for the duration of thirty-two Matras visualising the letter “M”.
This is one Pranayama and it should be followed further.
Then he should inhale through right nostril for the duration of sixteen Matras visualising the letter “A” with a one-pointed mind. He should retain the Prana with the understanding that he does it without any inconvenience for the duration of sixty-four Matras visualising the letter “U” muttering the Pranava. Then he should exhale through the left nostril for the duration of thirty-two Matras visualising the letter “M”.
He should repeat the practice with the understanding that he should continue with inhaling through the left nostril. Likewise, it should be repeated daily.
If he continues in this manner for six months, he will become the man of wisdom. Within one year, he acquires the knowledge of Brahman. He should continue to practice daily. He who has resorted to daily practice discharging his duties is released from bondage from the practice of Pranayama alone with the knowledge gained therefrom.
Puraka is inhaling the Prana from outside. Retaining the Prana in the belly is Kumbhaka. Expelling the Prana outside is known as Rechaka.
The inferior type of Pranayama produces profound perspiration. The moderate type of Pranayama generates tremor in the body. The superior type gives levitation. Hence it should be practised earnestly from stage to stage to attain levitation. Once attained, he becomes an adept and found himself in happiness.
Pranayama purifies the mind. When the mind is purified, the inner radiance becomes visible to his own eyes. Prana along with mind takes its abode in Atman. His body will rise up. The little knowledge gained has the capacity to release him from bondage.
Giving up Rechaka and Puraka, one should take the practice of Kumbhaka alone. (This is for adepts only). His sins will be destroyed and he will attain great knowledge. He will get swiftness of the mind. The grey hairs and the like will go.
For him who relies on Pranayama alone, nothing is unattainable. Hence one should earnestly take Pranayama with determination.
Benefits of Pranayama
Then Sage Dattatreya proceeds to enumerate the benefits of Pranayama to sage Sankriti.
Drawing the Prana from outside, filling up in the belly during the morning and evening twilight or at noon, and holding Prana at the tip of the nose, in the navel, and at the big toes of the feet, a yogi will live for hundred years without diseases.
By holding it at the tip of the nose, the mastery is gained. By holding it in the middle of the navel, diseases are prevented. By holding at the big toes, lightness of the body is the result.
He who drinks the air inhaling through the tongue will get immunity over diseases, thirst, and tiredness.
He who holds the Prana at the root of the tongue will drink the nectar of immortality with the help of tongue.
He who holds the Prana at the middle of the eyebrows after inhaling through the left nostril will drink the pure nectar and alleviate himself from all diseases.
He who holds the Prana at the middle of the navel after inhaling through the left nostril and right nostril will be free from all diseases.
For him who holds in the Prana in the navel after inhaling through the tongue and drinking the nectar during the twilight of the morning as well as evening and noon for one full month, the diseases arising out of the imbalances of Vata (air) and Pitta (bile) will perish.
If the Prana is held in the eyes after inhaling through the nostrils, all diseases pertaining to eyes will be destroyed. Likewise the ears and head too.
Assuming Svastikasana, having controlled the mind well, forcing slowly the Apana a little by little, muttering Pranava, one should press the ear and other organs of senses with his fingers. He should close the senses of the ears with his thumbs, eyes with his forefingers, and two nostrils with other fingers. He should retain the mind in the head until the manifestation of Bliss happens. By doing this, Prana enters Brahma Randhra, the crevice of Brahman.
When Prana enters there, Nada is generated. At first, it resembles a Conch-blast. Then in the middle, it resembles a thunderclap roaring like a waterfall in a mountain when Prana enters the middle of the head. Atman who is now pleased appears before him. Then comes the ripeness of the knowledge from yoga and the release from the bondage.
Mastery in Pranayama
Then he should press the perineum with his right and left ankles. He should press with his ankles the joints under the knees meditating upon Lord Shiva, Lord Vinayaka, and Goddess Sarasvati.
Having drawn up the Prana through the tip of the stalk of the genital along with Pranava and Sperm and confine it in the middle of Muladhara. By this, the fire kindled by the Vayu will be brought to Kundalini. Again there is the union of Prana, Fire, and Kundalini in Susumna. He who practises like this will have mastery over Prana.
Profuse perspiration comes first. Then comes the tremor of the body and finally levitation. These are the symptoms of mastery over Pranayama.
For him who has gained mastery, piles, anal fistula, and other diseases will vanish. All sins whether they are small or big will go. Then the mind will become clear. Subsequently, the experience of Brahman, detachment becomes possible. By detachment, the worldly experience is taken as a tool to attain alone-ness. After knowing the supreme God, he will be released from the bondage.
He who drinks the elixir of wisdom even once runs away immediately forgoing all actions.
They who have the real knowledge view the world as the form of knowledge. Others view the world as the form of wealth.
By the knowledge of Atman, ignorance is destroyed. On the annihilation of ignorance, there is the annihilation of passions and the like. In the absence of passions and the like, the disappearance of the fruits of actions of virtue and vice. As a result of their disappearance, the dependence of the body comes to an end.
Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Seven: Pratyahara
Pratyahara is the forceful bringing back of the senses from their natural tendency of going after the objects of sensory pleasure.
Seeing all objects as Brahman with a well-controlled mind is Pratyahara. This is according to those who know Brahman.
All the actions until death, whether pure or impure, are attributed to Brahman. This is Pratyahara.
One should perform his daily duties of ceremonial observances and rites with the attitude of satisfying Brahman alone. This is Pratyahara.
Drawing in the Prana and confining it in place after place: Drawing from the root of the teeth and confining it at the throat. From throat to the chest. From chest to navel. Navel to the place of Kundalini. From the place of Kundalini to Muladhara. Then drawing the Apana to two hips. The hips to the thighs. Then to the knees. The knees to the Shanks. From the Shanks to big toes. This is known as Pratyahara from the times of yore.
All the sins and diseases of worldly existence vanish altogether for him who has the practice of Pratyahara.
Being motionless and Assuming the Svastikasana, he should draw in Prana imagining the Prana is filled from the sole of the feet to head. Then he should draw in from the pair of the feet. Then Muladhara, navel, heart, throat, palate, eyebrow center, and then forehead. And finally, he should draw in from the head and retain it there.
Having the mind well under control, having the idea of Atman inside the body, he should confine the Atman in the indescribable non-dual Brahman. This the actual Pratyahara as known by those well versed in Vedanta.
For him who has resorted to practices like this, nothing is unattainable.
Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Eight: Dharana
The sage Dattatreya proceeds to explain the five Dharanas.
In the ethereal space of the body, the outside ether should be meditated. Likewise outside Vayu in Prana, outside fire in the belly, water in water region, and earth in the earth region.
He should mutter the mantra as “Ha”, “Ya”, “Ra”, “Va”, and “La” respectively. It is the supreme Dharana that gets rid of all the sins.
Up to the knees is the portion of the earth. Up to Anus, Water. Up to heart, Fire. Up to the middle of brows, Air. Above that to the head, Ether.
One should meditate on Lord Brahman in the portion of the earth, Lord Vishnu, in the portion of water, Lord Mahesvara in the portion of Fire, Lord Isvara in the portion of Air, Lord Sadashiva in the portion of ether.
Other I describe other Dharana. The yogi should always meditate on Lord Shiva Who is the basis for all scriptures and bliss as Atman for getting rid of all the sins.
In Pranava, one should meditate upon Brahman who is indistinct and indescribable and who is the prime cause of all and who is complete in Atman, by withdrawing senses and mind and merge them with Atman. In this way, he gets rid of all causes that bring forth the effects of the various forms of Brahman.
Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Nine: Dhyana
Sage Dattatreya starts describing Dhyana that destroys the worldly existence. One should meditate on Isvara Who is the very Truth, the very existence, Brahman that transcends all, the panacea for diseases of worldly nature, Who has got his retas (semen) turned upwards, and Who has the form of the world. He should meditate upon the great yogi Isvara with the conception that He I am.
Alternatively, for the attainment of Videha Mukti, he should meditate Upon Atman that is the very Truth, Existence, consciousness, bliss, non-dual entity, pure, eternal without the beginning, the middle, and the end, the subtle, intangible, and imperceptible as Brahman I am.
For the person of a great soul who has resorted to the practices of this nature, the knowledge of Vedanta manifests gradually without a doubt.
Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Ten: Samadhi
Then he proceeds to describe Samadhi that destroys the worldly existence.
Samadhi is the creation of consciousness wherein Jivatman and Paramatman merge. Atman is eternal, transcendental, devoid of blemishes and perfectly identical to Paramatman. Out of delusion, It is divided and seen as separate. There is no duality. There is no phenomenal world. There is no cycle of births and deaths. Like ether is said to be ether of pot and the ether of Math (the place of practice and residence for Guru and disciples), Atman is said to be the form of Jiva and Brahman, out of delusion.
I am not the body, I am not Prana, I am not the senses and I am not the mind. I am just the witness always. I am Shiva alone. This knowledge is known as Samadhi.
I am Brahman. Not the worldly existence. Nothing or no one behind me. In the ocean, foams, waves, and the like are generated and dissolved in the same ocean. Likewise, the world dissolves in me. There is no such thing as mind nor the delusion of the world. He, in whom Paramatman has manifested, reaches the supreme state, the state of Purusha, on his own accord. When the attainment of Brahman is accomplished, the consciousness pervades all and shines always in the mind and nothing could intervene. If he sees all beings in his own Atman and his Atman in all being, he becomes Brahman. He who does not see all beings in Samadhi becomes one with the transcendent Brahman. When one looks upon his Atman as Brahman alone, then all the world becomes delusion alone. There ensues the final bliss.
The great sage Dattatreya said thus to Sage Sankriti who looks upon his own Atman alone without any fear.
Thus ends Darshana Upanishad.
Om Tat Sat!