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Darshana Upanishad

Darshana Upanishad


Darshana Upanishad is also known as Darshanopanishad, Yoga Darshana Upanishad, or Jabala Darshana Upanishad. It is one of the twenty Yoga Upanishads and the ninetieth of 108 Upanishads of Muktika Upanishad order and found attached to Sama Veda.

This Upanishad consists of 109 verses in ten chapters and mainly deals with Ashtanga Yoga.

This Upanishad is the dialogue between the great Sage Dattatreya who is the four-handed Maha Vishnu himself and who is the king of yoga territory and his devoted disciple and the great sage Sankriti. 

Darshana Upanishad: Chapter One: Ashtanga Yoga: Yama

When the sage Dattatreya was alone, Sankriti approached his Guru and saluted him with folded hands with great modesty and asked him to explain in detail the yoga of eight limbs, the knowledge of which would make him become a Jivan-Mukta.  

The Great Sage starts to explain the yoga of eight limbs: Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, and Samadhi are the eight limbs of Yoga.  

The ten types of Yama are Ahimsa (Non-violence), Sathya (Truth), Asteya (Non-stealing), Brahmacharya (Celibacy), Daya (Compassion), Arjava (Straight-forwardness), Kshama (Perseverance), Drutir (Willpower or Firmness), Mithahara (Moderate food) and Saucha (Cleanliness).  

Ahimsa – Non-Violence

The non-violence is verily the penance. It is the non-indulgence in violence by the mind, words, and body following the injunctions of the scriptures. For a scholar of scriptures, the best of non-violence is the strong belief that Atman transcends all, which is impartial and beyond the grasp.

(Note: He who believes that Atman exists in all, sees Atman in everyone and everything he interacts with. He treats all as his own Atman. If he intends violence against anyone, it is violence against his self. This belief makes him not to indulge in violence. This is the best type of Non-Violence since there is no scope for violence at all).   

Sathya – Truth

The perception of objects seen, heard, and smelt by the eyes and other organs of senses alone is true.  All that exists is the Supreme Brahman. It could not be otherwise. The strong belief in this fact is the best truth for those who have crossed the ocean of Vedanta.  

Asteya – Non-stealing

The complete abstinence of the mind from cereals, gems, gold, and the pearls belonging to others is non-stealing as known by the noblemen. For those who know Atman, the great non-stealing is the abstinence from dealing with Atman as being Anatman.

(Note: Anatman means that which is not Atman. In reality, Anatman does not exist. For those who don’t have real knowledge of Atman, Atman, and Anatman are two separate and distinct things. For him who knows, the abstinence from the belief that there exist Atman and Anatman is the Non-stealing. This is the best Non-stealing).  

Brahmacharya – Celibacy

The non-indulgence in any contact with women employing mind, speech, and body is celibacy. It applies to one’s own wife too except for the period immediately after mensuration. The constant application of mind to the state of becoming Brahman is the Celibacy.   

Daya – Compassion

The indulgence in other beings by mind, body, and speech as towards one’s self is compassion as declared by the scholars of Vedic literature.  

Arjava – Straight-forwardness

The uniformity in treating one’s own son, friend, wife, enemy, and own self in all walks of life is Arjava.  

Kshama – Perseverance

Kshama does not lose the temper of mind, body, and speech even when provoked by enemies.  

Drutir – Willpower

The downing of wisdom that complete freedom from the worldly clutches is possible only through the Scriptures is the firmness or imperviousness. The unswerving belief “I am Brahman, nothing other than that” is Drutir.  

Mithahara – Moderate Food  

Leaving off a quarter of food which is purely for the attainment of success in yoga is Moderate Food.  

Shaucha – Cleanliness

External cleanliness is getting rid of the impurities of the body whereas the internal cleanliness that relates to the mind is meditation.   Scholars say that cleanliness constitutes the knowledge “I am Pure”. The body is extremely impure whereas Atman is Pure. Understanding the difference between them, to which of them purity should be prescribed?  

Fools enjoy external purity ignoring the purity of internal awareness. It is like getting hold of a clod of the earth leaving off the gold.  

Atman is Brahman

For him, who has complete satisfaction with the nectar of knowledge and who has discharged his duties, nothing is left to be done. If at all, there is anything that is left, he has no complete knowledge of the truth.   For him, who knows Atman, there remains nothing to be done even in the three worlds.  

Hence, with all your effort, have recourse to non-violence and other means. By the knowledge so acquired, know the truth Atman is none other than the eternal Brahman.

Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Two: Niyama

Tapas (Penance), Santosha (rejoice), Astikya (faith in scriptures), Dhaana (charity),  Isvara Pujita (God worship), Siddhanta Sravana (study of scriptures), Hree (Modesty), Mathi (Adherence to Scriptures) , Japa (Chanting) and Vrata  (oath of commitment to austerities) are the types of Niyama.

Let me explain in detail.

Tapas – Penance

The emaciation of the body by religious penance with regard to the phase of the moon and the like as prescribed by the scriptures is said to be Tapas. 

What is Liberation? How can it be attained? What makes anyone attain the wheel of births and deaths? For the learned, inquiries like these which give insight into the importance of the inner things are Tapas.

Santosh  – Rejoice 

The accidental acquisition of any gain in daily life gives pleasure. The wise men are bent on the acquisition of wisdom which is termed as Santosh. But the highest order of Santosh is getting rid of all attachments till one realizes Brahman.  

Astika – faith in scriptures

Astika is the faith in Sruti and Smriti. (Note: Sruti refers to things being remembered and Smriti refers to Vedas. Sruti changes according to the ages and Smriti is eternal).  

Dhaana – Charity

The charity by way of giving away of pecuniary things earned by righteous means to persons who follow the path of scriptures or whatever else they give is known as Dhaana.  

Isvara Pujita -God Worship

Having a mind free from passion, a speech devoid of falsehood by foul and other means, and action devoid of violence is Isvara Pujita or God Worship.  

Siddhanta Sravana – Study of Scriptures

One should understand the reality of existence, the eternal wisdom, the extreme bliss, and the extreme reality that exists inside. This is the study of Truth expounded by the Upanishads.  

Hree – Modesty

The shyness felt in doing the act that is inferior according to the concepts of Vedas and the world is Hree or Modesty.  

Mathi – Adherence to Scriptures

The committed belief in things enjoined in Vedas is Mathi or adherence to scriptures. One should keep himself away from anything against the guidelines, even though it is the guidance of his Guru.   

Japa – Chanting 

The chanting of the Mantra following Vedas is Japa. For this, there are rules in Vedas, Kalpa Sutras, Dharma Sastras, Purana, and Ithihasas (Epics and scriptures).  

Japa is of two kinds: Oral Chanting and Mental Chanting. Oral chanting is also of two kinds: muttered Chanting and Chanting aloud. Mental Chanting is also of two kinds: Chanting by contemplation and Chanting by meditation.  

The muttered chanting is a thousand times better than loud chanting. The loud chanting will give results as prescribed in the scriptures. If the mantra chanted is heard by persons of low caliber, it becomes devoid of bestowing the expected results.  


Vrata is not explained in this Upanishad. ( Note: Vrata is the practice of oaths of commitment to the performance or non-performance of specific activities as austerity for a specific period).

Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Three: Asana

The Asanas are nine in number. They are Svastikasana, Gomukhasana, Padmasana, Virasana, Simhasana, Bhadrasana, Muktasana, Mayurasana, and Sukhasana.  


Placing crosswise the two soles of the feet between the knees and thighs and keeping the body, neck, and head in a straight line is Svastikasana.  


Placing the right ankle by the side of the left buttock and likewise left ankle by the right side is known as Gomukhasana.  


Placing the two soles of the feet over the two thighs and holding the two big toes with two hands from behind the body is known as Padmasana which will destroy the fear of diseases.


Placing the left foot over the right and keeping the body erect and even is Virasana.  


Simhasana is not explained in the Upanishad.

(Note: Placing the two ankles in the sides of the perineum – right ankle on the left and left on the right, placing the hands on the knees with fingers spread out, showing his face distinctly by opening the mouth to the fullest extent and keeping the mind under control by casting the sight on the tip of the nose is Simhasana)  


Placing the two ankles by the sides of the perineum and firmly holding the sides of the feet to become motionless is Bhadrasana which will destroy the poison and diseases.  


Placing the right side of the perineum with the left ankle and the left side with the right ankle is Muktasana. The genitals should be placed over the left ankle which should be placed over the right ankle.  


Placing the two palms on the ground, placing the tip of the elbows by the sides of the navel, lifting the head and the legs upwards, and floating in the air like a stick with the single-pointed mind is Mayurasana that destroys the sins.  


In which posture, comfort, and courage are attained, that posture is known as Sukhasana meant for weak people.     

By mastering the postures, one can control the three worlds. After having mastery over Asana, one should resort to Pranayama.

Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Four: Nadi and Prana

For anyone, one’s body is 96 Angulas when measured with his thumb. In the middle of the body is the abode of fire shining like molten gold. For humans, it is triangular located two Angulas above the anus and two Angulas below the genitals.   

Know the Center of the body! The Kandasthana is located nine Angulas from Muladhara and it stretches out four Angulas in diameter. It looks like the egg of a hen and is placed inside a sheath. In the middle of it is the navel.  


The Nadi located in the middle of the knot of the navel is Susumna. Seventy-two thousand Nadis stand around it. Among them, fourteen Nadis are important.

Fourteen Important Nadis

  1. Susumna
  2. Pingala
  3. Ida
  4. Sarasvati
  5. Pusa
  6. Varuna
  7. Hasti-jihva
  8. Yajasvini
  9. Alambusa
  10. Kuhu
  11. Visvodara
  12. Payasvini
  13. Sankini
  14. Gandhari

Three Most Important Nadis

Of these, three are more important. Among the three, one is the most important. That is Susumna known as Brahma-Nadi as called by the learned. Susumna is attached to the Vertebral column known as the Vina-Danda which is made up of bones and extends up to the skull.  

The seat of Kundalini is two Angulas below the navel. The form of Kundalini is made up of eight constituents. She regulates the functions of Vayus as her allotted function. Also, she regulates the functions of the passage of food and drinks by encircling the sides of the navel with her mouth which is the aperture of Brahman.

Location of Nadis

Ida stands on the left of Susumna and Pingala stands on the right. Sarasvati and Kuhu stand on the sides.  Gandhari and Hasti-jihva stand at the rear and front of Ida. Pusa and Yajasvini are at the rear and front of Pingala.   

Visvodara stands in between Kuhu and Hasti-jihva. Varuna stands in between Yajasvini and Kuhu. Yajasvini is in between Pusa and Sarasvati. Sankini is between Gandhari and Sarasvati.  Alambusa extends up to the Anus from the middle of the knot of the navel. Kuhu is at the front of Susumna.   

Pingala extends up to the right nostril and Ida to the left nostril. Yajasvini goes up to the big toe of the left foot. Pusa goes up to the left eye by standing behind Pingala.  

Payasvini to the right ear. Sarasvati goes to the tip of the tongue. Hasti-jihva to the big toe of the right foot. Sankini to the end of the left ear. Gandhari to the right eye. Visvodara is located in the knot of the navel.  


Vayus are ten in number. They are

  1. Prana
  2. Apana
  3. Vyana
  4. Samana
  5. Udana
  6. Naga
  7. Kurma
  8. Krkara
  9. Deva-datta
  10. Dhanjaya

These Vayus flow through all the Nadis. Of them, the first five are important. Among these, the first two are more important. Among these two, Prana is the most important.

Prana always presents in the middle of the neck, nose, navel, and heart. 

Apana is always present in the middle of the anus, thighs, knees, whole belly, navel, hip, and shanks.   Vyana is always present in the middle of the ears and eyes, at the joints of the shoulders and neck, wrist, and throat.

Udana is present in the legs and hands.

Samana pervades all parts of the body, without any doubt.

The second five Vayus starting from Naga are present in skin, bones, and the like.

The Functions of Vayus

The functions of Prana are the inhalation, exhalation, and coughing. The works of Apana are the evacuation of feces and urine. Samana pulls everything to the proximity. Udana lifts things, without any doubt. Vyana causes clashes.

Naga does belching. Dhanjaya swelling. Kurma does the work of shutting the eyes. Krkara is making oneself hungry. Bringing sleep is the work of Devadatta.

The Deities of Nadis

Siva is the deity of Susumna. Likewise, Hari is for Ida. Similarly, Brahman is for Pingala. Also, Viraj is for Sarasvati. Forover, Pusan is for Pusa. Varuna is the deity for Hasti-jihva. Likewise, the Sun is For Yajasvini. Varuna is for Alambusa. For Kuhu, the God of hunger. For Gandhari and Sankini, the moon is the deity. Prajapati is the deity of Payasvini. Pavaka is for Visvodara.

The movement inside the Nadis

The moon always travels through Ida. Likewise the sun through Pingala.

The passage of Vayu from Pingala to Ida is known as the Northern course and Ida to Pingala is the southern course.

When Prana reaches the junction of Ida and Pingala, it is a new moon in the body.

When Prana enters Muladhara, it is said to be the first equinox by the dedicated performer of penance and when Prana enters the cranium, it is the last equinox of the performer.

All inhalations and exhalations are the passage of months. When the Prana reaches Kundalini through Ida, it is said to be the lunar eclipse. If it is through Pingala, it is a solar eclipse.

Pilgrimage places inside the body 

External Pilgrimage Places are Inside

Sri-Parvata is at the crest. Kedara in the forehead. Benares is at the junction of brows and nose. Kurukshetra is at the chest. Prayaga is at the heart chakra. In the middle of the heart is Chidambaram. Kamalalaya is in Muladhara.

Having abandoned the pilgrimage waters inside the body and resorting to external waters of pilgrimage places is like going after broken pieces of glass having abandoned the gems in your hands.

The pilgrimage resort of abstract meditation is the supreme resort that is the proper remedy for all sins. The wife is caressed with one focus and the daughter is caressed with a different focus.

The yogi, having faith in his own Atman, should not resort to pilgrimage waters nor Gods made of wood and the like.

Which is Better: Internal or External Pilgrimage

The internal pilgrimage resort is by far superior to external pilgrimage resorts. The Thirtha (water of the pilgrimage places) of Atman is the greatest Theertha. Other Thirthas have no significance.

If the internal Thirtha of Chitta (mind) is contaminated, it cannot be purified by ceremonial baths and ablutions like a liquor pot are not purified even after hundreds of washings with water.

A man becomes pure (bodily) by bathing at places like Varanasi during solstices, equinoxes, eclipses, and intervening periods.

The Thirtha flowing from the washed feet of great men who are in pursuit of the true knowledge and attainment of yoga is the Thirtha for the purification of the contaminated mind of the ignorant. (Note: It means that only the grace of Guru purifies).

Location of Lord Shiva

Shiva is firmly established in the body. The fools seek Shiva in the woods, stones, sacrifices, chanting, charity, and sacred waters. It is like the person who serves food licks his elbow after throwing off the ball of food. (Giving up Shiva who stands inside and seeking him externally).

The yogis look for Shiva inside and not in images that have been created for ignorant people to conceive the Supreme Being.

He who sees the eternal, real, non-dual, omniscient, and bliss Brahman as his own Atman knows that. Always realize with the help of your mind ” I am the Atman”, giving up the cluster of Nadis and the human state on your own accord.

On seeing the almighty, incorporeal, blissful, and eternal Brahman in all the bodies, the yogi fortifies himself and does not experience grief. By the strength of his wisdom, the ignorance that produces the difference between Atman and Brahman is altogether lost.

What is the difference between Atman and Brahman? There exists no difference.

Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Five: Purification of Nadis

How to Purify Nadis

Sage Sankriti asked Sage Dattatreya to explain the purification of Nadis through which one can attain Jivan-mukti meditating constantly.

Dattatreya proceeds to explain briefly the mode of purification.

The aspirant having regulated his actions and conducts in line with the prescriptions of the scriptures, being devoid of desires and volition, having endowed with the eight limbs of yoga starting from Yama, being tranquil, having resorted to the ultimate truth,  and having confirmed in his self properly under the guidance of an enlightened should resort to a Math (ancient place for practice) either at the top of a hill or on the banks of a river, or under Bilva tree or at a forest which is pleasant and clean.

Then he should assume a posture facing east or north with his neck, head, and body erect in a straight line, having closed his mouth and eyes, becoming motionless, and start the yoga practice to see with his eyes the tip of the nose, the disc of the moon in the middle of the Bindu, the fourth state of consciousness, and the nectar that falls.

Inhaling the Prana through the left nostril and keeping it in the belly visualizing the fire in the middle of the body, he should meditate on the seed of fire (“Ram”) with Bindu and Nada. Then he should exhale the Prana through the right nostril. Again he should inhale through the right nostril and meditate on the seed of the fire. Then he should exhale the Prana through the left nostril.

He should practice this six times at three junctions of the day for three to four days (uniformly for each day).

Benefits of Purification of Nadis

By constantly following this, he attains purification of the Nadis that reflects in the lightness of the body, glowing fire in the belly, and the clear manifestation of sound. The symptoms are the indications of successful mastery. He should continue the practice until he sees the symptoms.

Then he should proceed to purify his Atman. The true nature of Atman is that it is always pure, eternal, self-luminous, and is always in the form of happiness. By the impact of ignorance, it is seen as impure. By the impact of wisdom, its purity is seen. He alone is pure who washes away the mud of impurity with the water of true knowledge. Not others who are bound by Karma.

Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Six: Pranayama

How to Do Pranayama

Sage Dattatreya proceeds to present the description of Pranayama.

Pranayama consists of Rechaka, Puraka, and Kumbhaka which are in the form of the triplets of the letters. Pranava is one such form of the triplet. Pranayama is made up of that.

He should Inhale through the left nostril visualizing the form of the letter “A” for the duration of sixteen Matras.

Thereupon he should retain the Prana in the belly for the duration of sixty-four Matras visualising the form of the letter “U” and muttering the Pranava mentally.

He who is intent on this should hold the air to his maximum convenient capacity. (Note: This means that the said proportion of Rechaka, Puraka, and Kumbhaka should be maintained without any strain on the part of the performer. That is why the ratio 16:64:32 is prescribed).

Then he should exhale through the right nostril for the duration of thirty-two Matras visualizing the letter “M”.

This is a single Pranayama and one should practice it further like this.

Pranayama With Pranava

Then he should inhale through the right nostril for the duration of sixteen Matras visualizing the letter “A” with a one-pointed mind. He should retain the Prana with the understanding that he does it without any inconvenience for the duration of sixty-four Matras visualizing the letter “U” muttering the Pranava. Then he should exhale through the left nostril for the duration of thirty-two Matras visualizing the letter “M”.

He should repeat the practice with the understanding that he should continue with inhaling through the left nostril. Likewise, one should repeat this daily.

If he continues in this manner for six months, he will become a man of wisdom. Within one year, he acquired the knowledge of Brahman. He should continue to practice daily. He who has resorted to daily practice discharging his duties is released from bondage from the practice of Pranayama alone with the knowledge gained therefrom.

Three Aspects of Pranayama

Puraka is inhaling the Prana from outside. Retaining the Prana in the belly is Kumbhaka. Expelling the Prana outside is Rechaka.

Three Types of Pranayama

The inferior type of Pranayama produces profound perspiration. The moderate type of Pranayama generates tremors in the body. The superior type gives levitation. Hence, one should practice earnestly from stage to stage to attain levitation. Once attained, he becomes adept and finds himself in happiness.

Pranayama purifies the mind. When the mind is purified, the inner radiance becomes visible to his own eyes. Prana along with mind takes its abode in Atman. His body will rise. The little knowledge gained can release him from bondage.

Kevala Kumbhaka

Giving up Rechaka and Puraka, one should take the practice of Kumbhaka alone. (This is for adepts only). His sins will go away and he will attain great knowledge. He will get swiftness of the mind. The grey hairs and the like will go.

For him who relies on Pranayama alone, nothing is unattainable. Hence, one should earnestly take Pranayama with determination.

Benefits of Pranayama

Then Sage Dattatreya proceeds to enumerate the benefits of Pranayama to sage Sankriti.

Drawing the Prana from outside, filling up in the belly during the morning and evening twilight or at noon, and holding the Prana at the tip of the nose, in the navel, and at the big toes of the feet, a yogi will live for hundred years without diseases.

By holding it at the tip of the nose, one gets the mastery. Likewise, by holding it in the middle of the navel, one gets the prevention of diseases. By holding at the big toes, the lightness of the body is the result.

He who drinks the air inhaling through the tongue will get immunity over diseases, thirst, and tiredness.

Also, he who holds the Prana at the root of the tongue will drink the nectar of immortality with the help of the tongue.

He who holds the Prana at the middle of the eyebrows after inhaling through the left nostril will drink the pure nectar and alleviate himself from all diseases.

He who holds the Prana in the middle of the navel after inhaling through the left nostril and right nostril will be free from all diseases.

For him who holds the Prana in the navel after inhaling through the tongue and drinking the nectar during the twilight of the morning as well as evening and noon for one full month, the diseases arising out of the imbalances of Vata (air) and Pitta (bile) will perish.

By holding Prana in the eyes after inhaling through the nostrils, all diseases of the eyes will go away. Likewise the ears and head too.

Shanmukhi Mudra

Assuming Svastikasana, having controlled the mind well, forcing slowly the Apana a little by little, muttering Pranava, one should press the ear and other organs of senses with his fingers. He should close the senses of the ears with his thumbs, eyes with his forefingers, and two nostrils with other fingers. He should retain the mind in the head until the manifestation of Bliss happens. By doing this, Prana enters Brahma Randhra, the crevice of Brahman.

When Prana enters there, that generates Nada. At first, it resembles a Conch-blast. Likewise, in the middle, it resembles a thunderclap roaring like a waterfall in a mountain when Prana enters the middle of the head. Atman who is now pleased appears before him. Then comes the ripeness of the knowledge from yoga and the release from the bondage.

Mastery in Pranayama

Then he should press the perineum with his right and left ankles. He should press with his ankles the joints under the knees meditating upon Lord Shiva, Lord Vinayaka, and Goddess Sarasvati.

Having drawn up the Prana through the tip of the stalk of the genitalia along with Pranava and Sperm and confined it in the middle of Muladhara. By this, the fire kindled by the Vayu will be brought to Kundalini. Again there is the union of Prana, Fire, and Kundalini in Susumna. He who practices like this will have mastery over Prana.

Profuse perspiration comes first. Then comes the tremor of the body and finally levitation. These are the symptoms of mastery over Pranayama.

For him who has gained mastery, piles, anal fistula, and other diseases will vanish. Moreover, all sins whether they are small or big will go. Then, the mind will become clear. Subsequently, in the experience of Brahman, detachment becomes possible. By detachment, the worldly experience is only the tool to attain aloneness.  After knowing the supreme God, he gets freedom from the bondage.

He who drinks the elixir of wisdom even once runs away immediately forgoing all actions.

They who have real knowledge view the world as a form of knowledge. Others view the world as a form of wealth.

By the knowledge of Atman, one can destroy ignorance. On the annihilation of ignorance, there is the annihilation of passions and the like. In the absence of passions and the like, the disappearance of the fruits of actions of virtue and vice. As a result of their disappearance, the dependence on the body comes to an end.

Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Seven: Pratyahara

Pratyahara is the forceful bringing back of the senses from their natural tendency to go after the objects of sensory pleasure.

Seeing all objects as Brahman with a well-controlled mind is Pratyahara. This is according to those who know Brahman.

All the actions until death, whether pure or impure, are attributed to Brahman. This is Pratyahara.

One should perform his daily duties of ceremonial observances and rites with the attitude of satisfying Brahman alone. This is Pratyahara.

Drawing in the Prana and confining it in place after place: Drawing from the root of the teeth and confining it at the throat. From the throat to the chest. From chest to navel. Navel to the place of Kundalini. From the place of Kundalini to Muladhara. Then drawing the Apana to two hips. The hips to the thighs. Then to the knees. The knees to the Shanks. From the Shanks to big toes. This is Pratyahara from the times of yore.

All the sins and diseases of worldly existence vanish altogether for him who has the practice of Pratyahara.

Being motionless and Assuming the Svastikasana,  he should draw in Prana imagining that the body from the sole of the feet to the head is full of Prana. Then, he should draw in from the pair of feet. Likewise, Muladhara, navel, heart, throat, palate, eyebrow center, and then forehead. And finally, he should draw in from the head and retain it there.

Having the mind well under control, having the idea of Atman inside the body, he should confine the Atman in the indescribable non-dual Brahman. This is the actual Pratyahara as known by those well versed in Vedanta.

For him who has resorted to practices like this, nothing is unattainable.

Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Eight: Dharana

The sage Dattatreya proceeds to explain the five Dharanas.

In the ethereal space of the body, One should meditate on the outside ether. Likewise, outside Vayu in Prana, outside fire in the belly, water in the water region, and earth in the earth region.

He should mutter the mantra as “Ha”, “Ya”, “Ra”, “Va”, and “La” respectively. It is the supreme Dharana that gets rid of all the sins.

Up to the knees is the portion of the earth. Likewise, up to Anusis the portion of water. Up to heart, Fire. Up to the middle of brows, Air. Above that to the head, Ether.

One should meditate on Lord Brahman in the portion of the earth, Lord Vishnu, in the portion of water, Lord Mahesvara in the portion of Fire, Lord Isvara in the portion of Air, and Lord Sadashiva in the portion of ether.

Other I describe other Dharana. The yogi should always meditate on Lord Shiva Who is the basis for all scriptures and bliss as Atman for getting rid of all the sins.

In Pranava, one should meditate upon Brahman who is indistinct and indescribable and who is the prime cause of all and who is complete in Atman, by withdrawing senses and mind and merging them with Atman. In this way, he gets rid of all causes that bring forth the effects of the various forms of Brahman.

Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Nine: Dhyana

Sage Dattatreya starts describing Dhyana which destroys worldly existence. One should meditate on Isvara Who is the very Truth, the very existence, Brahman that transcends all, the panacea for diseases of worldly nature, Who has got his retas (semen) going only upwards, and Who has the form of the world.  He should meditate upon the great yogi Isvara with the conception that He I am.

Alternatively, for the attainment of Videha Mukti, he should meditate Upon Atman that is the very Truth, Existence, consciousness, bliss, non-dual entity, pure, eternal without the beginning, the middle, and the end, the subtle, intangible, and imperceptible as Brahman I am.

For the person of a great soul who has resorted to practices of this nature, the knowledge of Vedanta manifests gradually without a doubt.

Darshana Upanishad: Chapter Ten: Samadhi

Then he proceeds to describe Samadhi which destroys worldly existence.

How to Attain Samadhi

Samadhi is the creation of consciousness wherein Jivatman and Paramatman merge. Atman is eternal, transcendental, devoid of blemishes, and perfectly identical to Paramatman. Out of delusion, It is divided and seen as separate. There is no duality. Also, there is no phenomenal world. Likewise, there is no cycle of births and deaths. Like ether is said to be the ether of pot and the ether of Math (the place of practice and residence for Guru and disciples), Atman is said to be the form of Jiva and Brahman, out of delusion.

I am neither the body, Nor I am Prana. Likewise, I am neither the senses nor the mind. Moreover, I am just the witness always. I am Shiva alone. This knowledge is Samadhi.

I am Brahman. Not the worldly existence. Nothing or no one behind me. Foams, waves, and the like are generated and dissolved in the same ocean. Likewise, the world dissolves in me. There is no such thing as the mind nor the delusion of the world. He, in whom Paramatman has manifested, reaches the supreme state, the state of Purusha, on his own accord. When the attainment of Brahman is accomplished, the consciousness pervades all and shines always in the mind and nothing can intervene.

If he sees all beings in his Atman and his Atman in all beings, he becomes Brahman. He who does not see all beings in Samadhi becomes one with the transcendent Brahman. When one looks upon his Atman as Brahman alone, then all the world becomes delusion alone. There ensues the final bliss.

The great sage Dattatreya said thus to Sage Sankriti who now looks upon his own Atman alone without any fear.

Thus ends Darshana Upanishad.

Om Tat Sat!

Ref: Sanskrit Text Reference
PDF: Darshanopanishad.pdf

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