What are Mahavakyas?
The Sanskrit term ‘Mahavakya’ means a great sentence or aphorism. Vedas are the oldest religious scriptures of Sanatana Dharma. Upanishads are the concluding part of the Vedas. While Upanishads are called the very essence of Vedas, these aphorisms are called the very essence of Upanishads or Vedanta. Indian Philosophy is mostly based on Vedanta. Different interpretations of Vedanta lead to different kinds of philosophies. Hence these aphorisms too are interpreted in different ways.
According to Advaita Vedanta, Brahman only is the truth and the empirical world is illusory. There is no other supremity than the oneness of Brahman and Jiva. The true identity of Jiva or Self is Brahman only. This identity is reiterated in Vedantic scriptures and expressed in these Vakyas. Hence these Vakyas are identity statements. They are the equations of Paramatma and Jivatma.
Bondage (Samsara) is the reason for the miseries of the world. Ajnana (Ignorance) is the cause of Samsara. Liberation (moksha) is the absence of Ajnana. Jnanam (Wisdom) alone is the cause of Liberation. Jnanam Eva Moksha Karanam. Then, How one could attain Jnana? Advaita text Naishkarmya Siddhi replies ‘Vedanta Mahavakya Eva Jnanam’ which means ‘Vedanta Maha-Vakya alone gives Jnanam or wisdom’.
Adi Sankara explains Maha-Vakyas in 43 verses (Verses 210-253) in his Advaita Prakarana Grantha Vivekachudamani. According to him, the functions of Maha-Vakyas take one from Seer-Seen-Relationship (Drik Drishya Sambandha) to Effect-Cause-Relationship (Karya Karana Sambandha).
Sri Sankaracharya expounded the core concepts and tenets of Advaita Vedanta mostly based on the dour aphorisms.
Sri Ramanucharya repudiates the meaning of aphorisms as elucidated in Advaita sub-school of Indian Philosophy. He interprets the Mahavakyas differently in his Visistadvaita sub-school of Indian philosophy.
The views of Sri Madvacharaya of Dvaita sub-school of philosophy differs from Sri Adi Sankara and Sri Ramanuja.
Though they had an entirely different view from one another, they accept the supremacy and authority of Vedanta. Only their interpretations of Vedanta are different. It is understandable that Sri Adi Sankara gives more importance to these aphorisms, the others did not give similar importance.
The Primary Mahavakyas
‘Prajnanam Brahma‘ which is found in Aitreya Upanishad of Rig Veda, ‘Aham Brahmasmi‘ which is found in Brihadaranya Upanishad of Yajur Veda, ‘Tat Tvam Asi‘ which is found in Chandogya Upanishad of Sama Veda, and ‘Ayam Atma Brahma‘ which is found in Mandukya Upanishad of Atharva Veda are considered as the Primary Mahavakyas.
The four aphorisms give perfect answers to basic questions of the spiritual seeker like who am I?, Who is God? What is his nature? What is the nature of my soul? How to attain Liberation? etc.
The four aphorisms are also used in Mantra Japa by some seekers. While taking these mantras for Japa, one should contemplate on the meaning of them during practice, as it is done in Pranava Mantra Japa. Tejo Bindu Upanishad elucidates the benefits of this kind of Mantra Japa. Vakya Smarana or repeatedly reminding the meaning makes one attains Jnana – Vakya Smaranat Janam. It is also to be noted that Tat Tvam Asi is repeated nine times in Chandogya Upanishad.
To understand these terms, some Sanskrit grammatical terms like Vachyartha and Laksyartha should be acquainted with. Vachyartha means direct meaning or literal meaning. Laksyartha means indirect meaning or indicated meaning. Maha-Vakyas should be understood with indicated meaning and not with literal meaning. For example, the literal meaning of the term ‘Aham’ is ‘I’. ‘I’ does not refer to body or mind, but the witness behind.
Samadhikaranyam is a Sanskrit grammatical term. When two words indicate the same meaning, they are called Samadhikaranyam. There are sixteen types of Samadhikaranyam. In our context, it enough for us to understand the two of them: Aikya Samadhikaranyam and Bada Samadhikaranyam. For example consider the sentence: Rama is the King. The king and Rama are the same entities. The two words refer to one entity. Consider this sentence: The Rope is the snake. It means the snake you are seeing is the rope. Here, the snake is excluded. But in the former sentence, the second word is included. We should know the difference and take the right meaning. Prajnanam Brahma (Consciousness is Brahman) is Aikya Samadhikaranyam and the meaning should be taken accordingly. Aham Brahmasmi is Bada Smadhikaranyam. Because the Vachyartha of Aham is excluded and Lakyartha is taken. When Aham refers to the witness, it is Aikya Samadhikaranyam.
In addition to the four Maha-Vakyas, some other Maha-Vakyas are found in Vedanta. Let us scout some of them.
Sarvam Kalvidam Brahma
Sarvam means ‘all’. Kalvidam means ‘indeed this’. Hence this Maha-Vakya means ‘All this indeed Brahman’. This aphorism appears in Chandogya Upanishad.
sarvaṃ khalvidaṃ brahma tajjalāniti śānta upāsīta ।
atha khalu kratumayaḥ puruṣo yathākraturasmiꣳlloke
puruṣo bhavati tathetaḥ pretya bhavati sa kratuṃ kurvīta
All this is indeed Brahman. From this, the universe comes from, exists, and dissolves. A man is identified with his will. According to his will in this world, he verily becomes that will after leaving this world. Hence let him cultivate his will.
According to Advaita Philosophy, the world is a delusion. It is there but the reality is different from its appearance. Hence Sruti calls its Brahman. This verse of Chandogya Upanishad is the Sruti Pramana (testimony of the Vedic Scripture) for the Advaita Philosophy which calls this world as Mythya or delusion.
Ekam means one. Eva means alone. Advitiam means without a second. Hence this MahaVakya means ‘This is one alone without a second’. It was found in 6.2.1 of Chandogya Upanishad.
sadeva somyedamagra āsīdekamevādvitīyam ।
taddhaika āhurasadevedamagra āsīdekamevādvitīyaṃ
tasmādasataḥ sajjāyata ॥ 6.2.1॥
In the beginning, there was one entity alone without a second. Some say that there was nothing before creation. How can this be true? How could anything be created out of nothing? In fact, there was one entity alone without a second.
In Advaita Philosophy, bondage is the source of misery. Self-Knowledge is the source of liberation. Mahavakyas are the source of Self-knowledge. Through Maha-Vakyas one can attain liberation.