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Mula Bandha is a Hatha Yoga Practice that holds great significance in both physical and spiritual aspects. It is also referred to as Moola Bandha or Root Lock. Rooted in ancient yogic traditions, this practice encompasses the activation and mastery of particular muscles within the pelvic area. This results in holistic wellness and profound personal growth for the individual. It is one of the three Bandhas and is also a part of Mudras, which are yogic gestures. The other two Bandhas are Uddiyana Bandha and Jalandhara Bandha. Additionally, Mula Bandha acts as a barrier for the downward flow of pranic energy, redirecting it upwards. This redirection is a practice commonly referred to as Kundalini Awakening. It is always practiced in conjunction with Pranayama. In this article, we delve into the profound depths of Hatha Yoga to uncover valuable insights about Moola Bandha.

Mula Bandha (Root Lock) Meaning

The Sanskrit word मूल (Mula or Moola) signifies “root”, “foundation”, “base”, or “source”. Similarly, बंध (Bandha) refers to “lock”, “block”, or “shut”. Hence, the term “Mula Bandha” signifies applying a lock at the base. We can simply call it Root Lock.

Additionally, it denotes the Bandha of the Muladhara Chakra. Muladhara Chakra is located at the base of the spine and corresponds to the perineum in males or the cervix in females. The Yogi can achieve Mūla Bandha by constricting the perineum/cervix, thereby locking the Base Chakra. Hence, we can also call it Perineum Lock.

Mula Bandha (Root Lock) Origin, History and Evolution

Embedded within the intricate fabric of traditional yogic practices, Moola Bandha stands out as a vital thread. It showcases its historical significance. It illuminates the profound interplay between physical postures, breath control, and the subtle energies that course through the body. Yoga evolves continuously, adapting to changing times. However, its timeless and foundational aspects persist, inspiring and guiding practitioners on their journey of self-discovery and transformation.

The origins of this practice can be traced back to ancient yogic texts. These texts mention the practice in association with the subtle anatomy and energetic principles of the body. Texts such as Goraksha Paddati (12th Century CE), Hatha Yoga Pradipika (15th Century CE), Siva Samhita, and the Gheranda Samhita provide insights into the practices of bandhas as integral components of Hatha Yoga.

Moola Bandha, as outlined in these verses, holds a significant lineage spanning over a millennium. This highlights its enduring relevance and integral role in the continuous evolution of yogic traditions. The practice’s historical depth underscores its timeless contributions to the richness of yoga. This emphasizes its enduring importance in the ever-evolving landscape of spiritual and physical well-being

What is Mula Bandha as per Ancient Texts

Goraksha Paddati

Goraksha Paddati, an ancient yogic text, imparts profound insights into the transformative power of specific yogic practices. According to Verse 1.57, the adept Yogi who has mastered Maha Mudra, Nabhi Mudra, Uddiyana Bandha, Jalandhara Bandha, and the Root Lock, will attain Liberation—a state of profound spiritual freedom.

Similarly, in Verse 1.81, the text provides detailed instructions on engaging the Root Lock. It prescribes the firm pressing of the left heel against the perineum. Also, simultaneous contraction of the anus, and the conscious drawing of Apana (life force) upwards. These meticulous guidelines offer a glimpse into the subtle nature of the yogic path.

Hatha Yoga Pradipika

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika (HYP), a seminal text of the 15th century CE, provides a thorough exploration of Hatha Yoga. It delves into ten Mudras, including Mula Bandha, and elucidates the methodologies employed to activate the Kundalini energy.

Perform Moola Bandha by pressing the heel against the perineum, constricting it, and drawing the Apana upwards. This technique facilitates the harmonious union of Prana, Apana, Nada, and Bindu. Apana, upon meeting the fire in the Manipura Chakra, heats Prana, intensifying the internal fire. The heightened flame extends to the Anahata Chakra. This way Kundalini awakens through this controlled ignition, straightening like a snake struck by a stick. It then navigates Brahma Nadi, akin to a snake entering its dwelling. Consistent daily practice of Moola Bandha is essential for the Yogi to cultivate and sustain these transformative processes.

Hatha Yoga Pradipika 9.61 to 9.69

Gheranda Samhita

The Gheranda Samhita, a 17th-century Hatha Yoga text, imparts a comprehensive seven-fold Yoga system. Offering guidance for achieving success in Yoga, it elucidates twenty-five Mudras. It describes the fifth Mudra as:

Press the area between the anus and scrotum with the left heel, contracting the rectum, and drawing the intestines near the navel towards the spine. Simultaneously, the right heel is placed on the organ of generation or the pubes, constituting Mula Bandha—a transformative practice that eradicates decay.

To traverse the ocean of existence, one must retreat to a secluded space, practicing this Mudra discreetly. Diligent and mindful practice of this Bandha effectively regulates and controls Prana, fostering mastery over vital life energies.

Gheranda Samhita 3.14 to 3.17

Other Yoga Texts

Other Yoga texts such as Siva Samhita, Hatha Ratnavali, Yoga Tattva Upanishad, Yoga Sikha Upanishad, and Sandilya Upanishad widely describe this practice.

Mula Bandha Procedure

Precautions and Contraindications

It involves the contraction of the perineum and pelvic floor muscles. While it can offer various benefits, it’s essential to approach it cautiously, especially if you have certain health conditions. Here are some precautions and contraindications for practicing this Bandha:


  1. Pelvic Floor, Spine, Abdomen Issues: If you have any pre-existing medical conditions, especially related to the pelvic floor, spine, or lower abdomen, consult with a healthcare professional. Additionally, seek guidance from a qualified yoga instructor before practicing this Bandha.
  2. Pregnancy: Pregnant women should be cautious with this practice. It is a general recommendation one should avoid intense bandha practices during pregnancy. However, gentle pelvic floor exercises under the guidance of a prenatal yoga instructor may be appropriate.
  3. Recent Abdominal Surgery: Individuals who have undergone recent abdominal surgery should avoid this practice until they have fully healed. The contraction of the pelvic floor may strain the abdominal area.
  4. Pelvic Inflammatory Disorders: Be cautious, if you have a history of pelvic inflammatory disorders, infections, or other pelvic health issues. Consult a healthcare professional to determine its suitability for your condition.
  5. Injury or Discomfort: If you experience pain, discomfort, or any adverse effects while practicing this Bandha, stop immediately and reassess your technique. In yoga practice, one should never ignore or push through pain.

In ancient times, practitioners undertook this practice following initiation from a Guru. While the texts detail the procedure, they emphasize its commencement only after receiving initiation. This precaution stems from the Guru’s intimate understanding of each disciple’s individual needs and capabilities.


  1. Rectal or Genital Disorders: Individuals with acute or chronic rectal or genital disorders should avoid this practice. The practice involves contraction in these areas and may exacerbate existing issues.
  2. High Blood Pressure: Mula Bandha is a practice that is included only in advance pranayama practices that involve breath retention. Hence, you should be cautious against the practice of this Bandha for individuals with uncontrolled high blood pressure. Engaging in breath retention can potentially increase blood pressure.
  3. Spinal Issues: If you have spinal injuries or disorders, especially in the lumbar or sacral regions, be cautious with this practice. Incorrect engagement may strain the spine.
  4. Menstruation: Traditionally, some yoga teachings suggest avoiding strong bandha practices during menstruation. It is advisable to modify or skip these practices during this time.

Always seek guidance from a qualified yoga instructor or healthcare professional, especially if you have specific health concerns or conditions.

Mula Bandha Steps

It is not an independent practice but is consistently integrated into advanced breath control techniques involving breath retention. Nevertheless, the steps are presented here to elucidate the fundamental methodology.

  1. Find a Comfortable Seat: Sit in a comfortable and stable seated position. This can be in a cross-legged pose like Sukhasana (easy pose) or Padmasana (lotus pose).
  2. Relax the Body: Begin by taking a few deep breaths to relax your body. Ensure a straight spine and relaxed shoulders.
  3. Awareness of the Perineum: Bring your attention to the perineum, which is the area between the anus and the genitals.
  4. Engage the Pelvic Floor Muscles: Gently and gradually contract the muscles of the perineum and the pelvic floor. Imagine lifting these muscles upward. It’s essential not to strain; the contraction should be firm yet comfortable.
  5. Avoid Tension in the Abdomen: While engaging in this practice, make sure that the contraction is isolated to the pelvic floor and perineum. Avoid unnecessary tension in the abdomen or other parts of the body.
  6. Gradual Progression: If you’re new to this practice, start with short durations. Gradually increase the time as you become more comfortable with the practice. It’s more about quality than quantity.
  7. Release with Relaxation: After holding the contraction for a few seconds or as per your comfort, release it with a sense of relaxation. Allow your pelvic floor muscles to return to their natural state.
  8. Practice Regularly: Like any yoga practice, consistency is key. Regularly incorporate this practice into your yoga routine. Over time, you may experience increased awareness and control over these muscles.

Remember that it is a subtle and internal practice. Hence, it might take time to develop a deeper connection with the muscles involved. Always, the practitioner should acquire this practice from a certified yoga instructor.


The duration for holding Mula Bandha can vary based on individual comfort, experience, and the overall context of your yoga practice. Generally, when you’re starting, it’s a good idea to begin with shorter durations. Then gradually increase as you become more familiar with the practice. Here are some general guidelines:

  1. Initial Practice: Begin by holding the contraction for a few seconds, perhaps 5 to 10 seconds, as you get accustomed to the engagement of the pelvic floor muscles.
  2. Gradual Progression: As you feel more comfortable and in control, gradually extend the duration. You may aim for 15 seconds, 30 seconds, or even longer over time.
  3. Breath Synchronization: You can sync the practice with your breath, contracting on the inhalation and releasing on the exhalation. This can help maintain a rhythmic flow.
  4. Quality Over Quantity: Focus on the quality of the contraction rather than the duration. It’s more important to engage the muscles correctly and comfortably than to hold for an extended period.
  5. Integrate into Yoga Practice: It is often integrated into broader yoga sequences or pranayama practices. Consider incorporating it into your overall yoga routine rather than isolating it for an extended period.
  6. Advanced Practice: In advanced practices involving breath retention (Kumbhaka), the contraction will go for longer durations. Approach such practices gradually and with proper guidance.

Remember, individual experiences may vary, and it’s crucial to adjust the practice to your specific needs.

Aswini Mudra and Mula Bandha

Both yoga practices involve the engagement of certain muscles in the pelvic region, but they are distinct techniques with different purposes. Here’s a brief comparison:

  1. Mula Bandha:
    • Engagement: In this practice, the practitioner contracts the muscles of the perineum and pelvic floor. This involves lifting and drawing in the area between the anus and genitals.
    • Purpose: This is often incorporated into various yoga practices, including asanas (postures) and pranayama (breath control). It helps channel and control the flow of energy (prana) in the body, promotes stability in poses, and enhances concentration.
  2. Aswini Mudra:
    • Engagement: It involves a rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the anal sphincter muscles, similar to the motion of contracting and releasing during a bowel movement.
    • Purpose: It is traditionally associated with practices related to energy awakening and manipulation. It activates the energy at the base of the spine (Muladhara chakra) and is often used in conjunction with other yogic practices.

Both practices involve the pelvic region and are associated with energy flow in the body. The specific muscles engaged and how they are contracted differ between Mula Bandha and Aswini Mudra. Additionally, their applications and benefits may vary based on the context of their practice.

Mula Bandha Benefits

Engaging in this practice offers various physical, mental, and energetic benefits. Here are some potential benefits of regular practice:

  1. Stability in Yoga Asanas (Postures): It provides a stable foundation for various yoga poses by engaging and strengthening the muscles in the pelvic floor. This contributes to better balance and posture.
  2. Energetic Flow (Prana): It helps direct and channel the flow of prana (vital energy) in the body. This enhances the overall energy circulation and promotes a sense of vitality.
  3. Core Strength: The activation of the pelvic floor muscles in this practice contributes to the strengthening of the core muscles. This is beneficial for overall stability and support.
  4. Enhanced Concentration: The focused engagement required for this technique can help cultivate mental concentration and mindfulness during yoga practice and meditation.
  5. Pelvic Health: Regular practice contributes to improved pelvic floor health. Also, it may help prevent or alleviate issues such as incontinence and provide support to the reproductive organs.
  6. Aids in Breath Control (Pranayama): It is often integrated with pranayama (breath control) practices, aiding in the regulation and control of the breath.
  7. Spiritual Awakening: In some yogic traditions, Mula Bandha awakens dormant energy at the base of the spine. Also, it facilitates the ascent of spiritual energy (kundalini).
  8. Balances Energy Centers (Chakras): It has a positive impact on the Muladhara Chakra, the energy center located at the base of the spine. This fosters a sense of groundedness and stability.


In conclusion, it’s crucial to recognize that Mula Bandha operates synergistically within the broader context of yoga practice. While the engagement of the pelvic floor muscles is indeed a valuable component on its own. Hence, the practitioners realize its true potential when integrating it into advanced pranayama techniques. The intricate relationship between Root Lock and pranayama forms a powerful union. It unlocks a deeper reservoir of benefits for the yoga practitioner.

This, when seamlessly woven into advanced breath control practices, enhances the overall efficacy of the respiratory system. The controlled contraction when synchronized with specific breathing patterns fortifies the core and stabilizes the body. Also,it contributes to a heightened sense of awareness and control over the breath.

This integration extends beyond the physical realm, delving into the subtler dimensions of energy and consciousness. Its harmonization with advanced pranayama techniques facilitates the smooth flow and manipulation of prana. This fosters a more profound connection between the physical and energetic aspects of the practitioner.

While practitioners experience its benefits in isolation, it is through collaborating with advanced pranayama that they fully harness its transformative potential. This underscores the holistic nature of yoga, where the union of physical postures, breath control, and energetic practices creates a comprehensive path toward well-being, mindfulness, and spiritual growth. As practitioners delve into the deeper practices of Mula Bandha and advanced pranayama, they open doors to a more profound exploration of the self, embodying the essence of yoga as a holistic and transformative discipline.

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