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Yoga Sikha Upanishad

Yoga Sikha Upanishad
Yoga Sikha Upanishad


Yoga Sikha Upanishad is also called as Yogasikhopanishad. It is the sixty-third Upanishad of Muktika Upanishad order and found attached to Krishna Yajur Veda. Sikha means the cranium, the primary limb of the body. Yoga Sikha Upanishad literally means the Upanishad relating to the prime aspect of yoga. It is one of the biggest Upanishads like Tejo Bindu Upanishad and contains six chapters.

Chapter 1

Hiranyagarbha asked Lord Mahesvara: “All living beings are trapped in the net of happiness and misery by Maya (Illusion by ignorance). Lord Sankara! Tell me. How can they attain Salvation with thy grace? Kindly explain me the course by which one attains success and happiness by cutting apart the trap of Maya, escaping the cycle of birth and death, and getting freedom from old age and diseases.”

Lord Mahesvara replied: The esteemed state of solitude (salvation) is difficult to attain even by resorting to various paths. It is attainable only by means of the realisation of Para-Brahman. Not by any other means.

Those ensnared in the nets of the knowledge of scriptures fail purely because of the Maya of knowledge. Brahman manifests on its own. How scriptures could make Brahman manifest? Brahman is digit-less, faultless, serene, beyond all, and not-ailing. That Brahman is integrated with the form of Jiva.

Hiranyagarbha asked: “How Paramatman who transcends all attains Jiva-hood? Lord Maha-deva! Explain this with thy grace.”

Brahman transcends all and is in the form of knowledge and is free from bondage. It manifests on its own like air and in that, self-consciousness arises. Then it assumes a fivefold character, and thereafter attains the state of Nithya Bhuti (eternal existence). After reaching the full individuality, it becomes Lila Bhuti (playful existence). After displaying diverse roles of delusion, it becomes Moha Bhuti (existence of delusion). After assuming various material forms it becomes Jada Bhuti (material existence). The material from which consists of constituents and qualities assumes the Jiva-hood. Because of this reason Paramatman is attributed to the form of Jiva.

Jiva has defects like lust, anger, fear, delusion, greed, birth, death, miserliness, sorrow, lethargy, hunger, thirst, insatiability, misery, depression and joy. Jiva who is devoid of these defects is Siva.

I will explain the means through which the freedom from these defects is achieved. Some say knowledge will serve the purpose. How can knowledge without yoga (Jnana without yoga) bestow liberation? Or yoga without Jnana? Hence the seeker should resort to both Jnana and Yoga simultaneously and practice them steadfastly.

He should first resort to Jnana which is the only means to attain the knowledge of Brahman. He should also examine what the ignorance is. He should know the real form of Brahman. He should know the wonderful state of solitude attained by removing the defects of Jiva. How can Jiva get liberated through Jnana when the defects like lust, anger, and fear are not removed?

The real form of Atman is all inclusive like Jnana. The defects like lust, anger, and others have no separate existence. Where is the prescribed rule of conduct for him? How can the question of prohibition arise for him? He who could discriminate things by getting rid of Maya (Illusion) becomes liberated. (Note: The defects cannot be removed by framing and following the rules of conduct or listing and adhering the prohibitions, but only by getting rid of the Maya by discrimination. For example, the Jnana that anger is not good will not remove the anger or likewise strictly following the rule that one should not show the anger, won’t be of any help. It can be removed only through cutting down the snare of Maya by discrimination)

Then he comes to know that Brahman is the real existence which is comprehensive in form and is divisible. It is also indivisible because of its comprehensive form. (Note: A good deal of explanation is needed here to get it rightly understood). It is divisible in the sense that it can be perceived as many and it is indivisible in the sense that it transcends all perceptions. Atman is part of Brahman because of the divisible nature of Brahman. Paramatman transcends all, because of indivisible nature of Brahman).

Because of the Kali age, Brahman which is indivisible, pure, and serene and which openly manifests in all as ether has attained the dynamic character of worldly existence by assuming the form of mobility. (Note: The static has become kinetic, Paramatman takes the form of Atman). He attained this form which is devoid of origin, existence, dissolution, continuity and Jnana. How then he immerses himself in the ocean of Maya giving up his wisdom again and again?

The Jnana of lower quality
The ignorant are attached to the worldly delusions by the influence of pleasures and pains. When a man of Jnana takes his stand among those delusions being driven by the worldly desires, then there is no difference between them because the minds of both of them are influenced by the worldly impressions. If this being the nature of Jnana, what could then be the nature of ignorance?

The man who has somehow attained Jnana by his efforts should be free from attachments. The man who has the Jnana of virtues and who has not yet conquered his senses could not attain liberation without the aid of yoga during his lifetime.

The earthly beings are two kinds: the ripe ones and the unripe ones. The unripe ones are those without yoga and ripe ones reached that state with yoga. By the fire of yoga, the whole body will become conscious and devoid of sorrow. The body which is unconscious and unripe is of earthly qualities and the source of sorrow. The unripe one is being disturbed by the organs of senses during meditation. In spite of his whole-hearted efforts, he faces with the impediments. He is troubled by the pairs of opposites like heat and cold, comfort and suffering and the like. He is also disturbed by various types of miseries and by the external sources like other beings, weapons, fire, water and winds. Because of these troubles, he finds his mind agitated. As a result, his life is in danger and his respiratory system gets perturbed. In this manner, the minds of men get agitated by the torments experienced.

Whatever the Jiva conceives during his departure from the body, he would become as such. This is the reason for the new incarnation. Men do not know which incarnation is in store for them after death. Hence Jnana of lower quality and the dispassion arising thereto are merely the indolence of Jiva. He is disturbed in his meditation even by an ant crawling on his body. How could he be the enjoyer of happiness if being stung by a scorpion or end-up his bodily existence? How could this be possible? They are all fools with false ideation who really do not know.

The concept of I-ness
If the concept of self (I-ness) is lost, his body is lost also. Not to mention the troubles. Then who is troubled by the water, fire, wounds of weapons and the like? As the concept of I-ness waxes or wanes, so is the onset of the troubles. There could not be any effect without a cause. Likewise, there could not be any trouble without the concept of I-ness.

The body has conquered all (Non-Yogis) and the Yogi has conquered the body. How could the effects of pleasure, pain and the like affect him? How lust, anger and the like conquer him who has conquered the organs of senses. He is not troubled by anything whatsoever. The Maha Bhutas and Tattvas will come under his control one after another. The seven kinds of humour of the body will be slowly consumed by the fire of yoga. He will be endowed with such a power even the demigods could not perceive. His body will be free from changes and bondages, will be in possession of multiple powers and will become transcendent like ether, even clearer than that. His body will have the power to shrink to a form subtler than the subtest. His body could become gross, but not yet gross and sentient but not yet sentient. He will have the power to assume any form of his choice and on his own. (Without the support of the external assistance). He will be free from the old age and death. He can travel to any place of his wish in the three worlds. He can assume any form and withdraws from it at his pleasure, having mastery over the organs of senses.

By the power of the virtue of yoga, he will not die. He is already dead because of the perfect Jnana. Then how comes the death to one that has already died. When all are dead, the yogi is verily alive. When the fools are alive, the yogi is dead. Nothing yet to be done by him. Previous Karma could not affect him. He becomes a Jivanmukta who is always pure and flawless.

The persons of Jnana with full of passion are always conquered by the body. Being the mass of the flesh of their bodies contrarily directed, how they can be compared with Yogis? The results of the virtuosity and sins hold them after their death. They will be born again after enjoying or enduring the fruits of their actions.

Then he attains the association of a Siddha because of his virtuous actions. He becomes a yogi by the grace of the Siddha, not by any other means. Then the cycle of birth and death ceases and not by any other means. This is the declaration of Lord Shiva.

The importance of Yoga
The Jnana without Yoga does not bestow liberation. Likewise, the Yoga without Jnana does not bestow accomplishment. Yoga is attained through Jnana during the course of several incarnations whereas Jnana can be attained through Yoga in a single incarnation. Hence besides Yoga, there is no other royal road to reach the liberation.

After long investigation through Jnana, one reaches the mental attitude: “I am liberated”. Is it possible at that moment that liberation is attained merely because of the mental attitude? It may be possible after hundreds of incarnations and that too through Yoga alone.

Unlike Jana, there will not be numerous births and deaths through Yoga. The merger of Prana and Apana results in the merger of the Sun and the Moon. By the fire of yoga, he should stimulate his body which is made up of seven kinds of humour. All diseases vanish, not to mention cuts, wounds and the like. His body will assume the form of transcendent ether. Is there any use in amplifying it further? For him, no death is assured. He appears as like the burnt leftover of camphor in a human form.

The importance of Prana and its control
In all Jivas, the mind is bound up with the Prana, like a bird is bound up with a rope. The mind cannot be restrained by investigations of various kinds. The only means to be employed for the conquest of the mind is Prana alone. Prana is amenable to control only by the established means (Note: established Pranayama techniques) and not by introspection, discourse, scriptures, tricks, mystic formulas or drugs. He who resorts to the Yoga with little knowledge of the established techniques will find himself in troubles. He who, having not controlled the Prana, is desirous of the path of Yoga is like a man who is desirous of crossing the ocean by embarking on a boat made up of the unbaked pot. He who has lost the Prana inside of his body, may be alive and his human form may exist, but his mind is tortured with infirmities.

If the mind is pure, the Atman manifests itself. Hence in a single incarnation, Jnana is attained through yoga. The practitioner should go for Yoga first. Prana should be

Yogātparataraṃ puṇyaṃ 
Yogātparataraṃ śivam
Yogātparataraṃ sūkṣmaṃ 
Yogātparataraṃ nahi

controlled first for attaining salvation.

There is no virtuosity higher than Yoga. No holiness greater than Yoga. No subtlety subtler than Yoga. Nothing is beyond Yoga.

The merger of Prana and Apana, likewise red and white fluids, the union of the Sun and the Moon, the unification of Jivatman and Paramatman and in this manner the union of the many pairs is Yoga.

Now I (Lord Mahesvara) shall proceed to explain Yoga-Sikha which is superior to all Jnanas. When a mantra is meditated upon, body tremor is generated. Instead, he should contemplate on Omkara assuming Lotus posture (Padmasana) or any other suitable posture, fixing the eyes on the tip of the nose, keeping the hands and the feet under control and withdrawing the mind from everywhere. Having Lord Parameswara seated in his heart he should ever engage himself in meditation. He should not conceive his body having a single pillar, nine offices, three pops and five deities. Instead, he should conceive his body as the solar disc of rays and flames. He should kindle the fire in the middle like the kindling the lamp by adjusting the wick. To the dimension, the flame of the lamp the is kindled, likewise, the dimension of Lord Parameswara shines. In this manner, it should be contemplated.

By the power of his practice, he pierces through the disc of the Sun. Another method is piecing the door of Sushumna Nadi which is bright altogether and specifically made for this purpose, drinking at the cranial cavity and contemplating on that state. (Note: Breaking open the door of the Sun is breaking open the door of Brahma Randhra directly. It is possible for highly elevated souls only. Others should have the recourse to breaking open the door of Susumna.)

If a person, even out of laziness and wrong ideation, contemplates thrice on that attains a commendable state. The state which has been found out is briefly described by me (Lord Maheswara). Then the Yogi shall see the Lord Parameswara manifests in all its glory. His sins of thousand previous births are atoned. Then he sees the great uprooting of attachments in all the realms of the world.

Now I (Lord Maheswara) shall explain the nature of the real practice of yoga. He should always serve the Guru who has conquered the Prana. The science of conquering Prana is orally transmitted to him by the grace of Guru. (Note: It means, it is not fully explained here in this Upanishad).

With a piece of a soft and white cloth measuring a length of twelve Angulas and a width of four Angulas, he should tie around as said. (Note: It is said that the piece of cloth as described should be tied around the Sarasvati Nadi).

Regulating the Prana in such a way as to be in line with arousing the kundalini power which is in the form of eight coils, he should strengthen Kundalini and arouse it by the constriction of the anus. Even though he is on the threshold of death, there is no fear of death for him. This is the profound secret that I am transmitting to you.

Awakening of Kundalini
Assuming the Vajrasana posture daily, he should practice the upward constriction. The fire being blazed by the Prana will heat up the Kundalini continuously. The power which has the capacity of deluding the three worlds being heated up by the fire, will enter Chandra Danda (the lunar shaft) found inside the orifice of Susumna. (Note: Chandra Danda should not be confused with Ida Nadi. It is said that Chandra Danda is found inside Susumna Nadi).

Three Knots
The Prana along with the fire pierces open the knot of Brahma (Brahma Grandhi is the knot obstructing the path of Susumna and located above Muladhara Chakra). Then it pierces open the knot of Vishnu (Vishnu Grandhi is the knot located at the door of Anahata Chakra). Then it punctures the knot of Rudra (Rudra Grandhi is located at the door of Ajna Chakra). It is done by exercising the steady inhalation and Kumbhaka (breath retention) over and over.

Types of Kumbhaka
One should practice Surya Bheda, Ujjayi, Sitali and Bastrika. They together constitute the four-fold Kumbhaka along with three Bandhas to attain Kevala Kumbhaka. (Kevala Kumbhaka is the breath retention that occurs without accompanying inhalation and exhalation).

Surya Bheda Pranayama
I (Lord Maheswara) hereby give a precise and clear account of Surya Bheda. Securing a secluded spot, the yogi with a steady frame of mind, moderate food, controlled Prana and others as prescribed, should meditate upon the highest principle (Paramatman) which is the nectar that saves him from the worldly inclinations. He should inhale the air through Surya Nadi (right nostril) and after performing Kumbhaka as prescribed, exhale through Chandra Nadi (left nostril). It destroys all the diseases of the belly and cures the nasty effects of duodenal worms. It should be practised again and again. This is Surya Bheda.

Ujjayi Pranayama
Inhaling through both the nostrils, he should direct it towards the Kundalini through both the sides and retain it in the belly and release through the left nostril. (Note: A detailed account of Ujjayi is not given here). It removes the diseases arising out of the imbalance of Phlegm. It removes the diseases of the throat. It removes the toxins in the Nadis. It nullifies the defects of the humour of the body. Ujjayi can be practised even while standing or during the movement of the body.

Sitali Pranayama
Sitali is inhaling through the mouth and exhaling through the nostrils. (Note: Kumbhaka should be performed in between, though not mentioned explicitly). It cures bile, hunger and thirst.

Bastrika Pranayama
Like a pair of bellows of a blacksmith, expelling the air out of the two breasts and inhale it, till he experiences fatigue. On feeling fatigue, he should fill through the right nostril and constricting the throat he should expel through the left nostril. It removes the heaviness of the mind, bile and phlegm. It raises the temperature of the body and arouses the Kundalini. It destroys the diseases of the mouth. It bestows the auspiciousness and is wholesome. It removes troubles like phlegm obstructing the path of Brahma Randhra. Along with the effective exercise of the Bandhas, it is capable of puncturing the three knots. This is Bastrika and should be practised particularly.

Three Bandhas
Now I (Lord Maheswara) proceed to explain the sequence of the Bandhas to be performed to gain the mastery of Prana. Having successful mastery over Kumbhakas, one should resort to three-fold Bandhas which I hereby relate. The first one is Mula-Bandha. The Second is Uddiyana-Bandha and the third one is Jalandhara-Bandha. I will give a detailed account.

Constricting the anus with the heel, he should bring the air up stage by stage. By exercising Mula-Bandha, Prana will merge with Apana and Nada with Bindu which gives the mastery of Yoga.

Uddiyana-Bandha should be performed at the close of Kumbhaka and at the beginning of inhalation. Because of the reason that it brings up the Prana in the Susumna, it is called Uddiyana-Bandha. It is always transmitted directly by a Guru. The aspirant should practice it without lethargy. It will even make the Oldman young. He should constrict the abdomen above and below the navel. For him, who practices for six months, there is no death. There is no doubt about it.

Jalandhara-Bandha should be performed at the close of inhalation. It is constricting the throat with the aim of obstructing the upward movement of Prana. After constriction, the Prana should be placed steadily in the heart region. This is Jalandhara-Bandha. It causes the full flow of nectar. When this constriction is combined with the constriction of the backward parts by Pascimottan-Asana in the middle, Prana will enter Brahma Nadi.

Supreme State
Assuming Vajrasana, he should perform Bastrika and quickly arouse Kundalini. Like the joints of bamboo are punctured and pierced open, Prana will puncture the knots of the vertebral column. It produces a sensation that resembles the crawling of an ant. By continuous practice, the sensation is produced in the Susumna. Then, by the piercing of Rudra-Grandhi, he attains the Siva-hood. This union takes place after the Sun and the Moon attain their equipoised state. The three Gunas (Rajas, Tamas, and Sattva) are transcended because of the result of the three Grandhis being pierced through. By the union of Siva and Sakthi (Kundalini), the supreme state is achieved. (Note: After having pierced the three knots, the state of Siva is achieved. When the Kundalini joins with this state, the supreme state or Nir Vikalpa Samadhi is attained).

The elephant drinks water always with its trunk only. Likewise, Susumna gets the Prana with the vertebral column only. Twenty-one bright nodes are attached to Vertebral column along the course of Susumna like a string of gems. Susumna which is in the form of universe erected in the path of liberation. The period of time is determined with reference to the positions of Sun and Moon. The prana inhaled and retained in Kumbhaka there, will not go out. If it does, it will be restored again and again till the status quo ante is attained. This is the quality of the back door. The Prana entered through the back door because of the Kumbhaka, distributed to all parts of the body. If it goes away, it is wasted. If it goes in, all parts of the body get nourished.

He who got his mind and body merged in the Brahman, the very origin of himself, he alone is liberated. He is purified and free from the I-ness which is devoid of the delusion of perceiving himself to be other than Atman. The fools that do not have the knowledge of Atman fall into the corporal state. If the mind gets dissolved, even the cessation of the flow of Prana is possible. If not, no scriptures, no knowledge of Atman, no Guru and no Liberation. The Jackal, under force, sucks its own blood, Likewise is the Brahma Nadi being thrown in the corporeal world with its reactions. By constant practice of this yoga together with the Asanas and Bandhas, the mind dissolves and the Bindu never goes down.

Having given up inhalation and exhalation, he should maintain the steadiness in his breath (retention). Different sounds are generated. The lunar region will start dripping. Then all ailments like thirst and hunger will vanish. Then the yogi will get himself fixed with the Brahman alone which is Sachitananda (the reality of blissful consciousness). This yoga is described to you out of my grace.

Maha Yoga
Mantra yoga, Laya yoga, Hatha yoga and Raja Yoga are the sequential steps. It is Maha Yoga that is one and is called by four diverse names.

Mantra Yoga
(Breath) Going out with the sound of ‘Ha’ and coming in with the sound of ‘Sa’ generates the Mantra “Hamsa, Hamsa”. All Jiva-s makes Japa on this mantra always. With the guidance of Guru and during the course of Sushumna Yoga (explained earlier), the Japa gets reversed and the mantra becomes “So ham” “So ham”. This is Mantra yoga.

Hatha Yoga
Ha’ means the Sun. ‘Tha’ means the moon. Hatha yoga is the merger of the Sun and the Moon.

Laya Yoga
Hatha yoga removes all the ailments of the body. The merger of Atman and Paramatman, the Laya Yoga happens. When it happens, the mind dissolves and the Prana attains steadiness. From Laya Yoga, wellness, the bliss of Atman and the proximity to Brahman are achieved.

Raja Yoga
Rajas which looks like the flowers of Japa and Bandhuka (flowers of blood-red colour) is located in the middle of the genitals of all creatures. It is of the feminine principle. Its union with the Retas of male principle is Raja yoga. The Siddhis (psychic powers) Anima (attenuation) and the like are attained by the yogi who has the mastery over Raja Yoga.

Common features of four-fold yoga
The union of Prana and Apana is known as the four-fold yoga. These words of Siva are precise and could not be otherwise. The goal of yoga is reached by gradual practice only and not otherwise. The liberation is possible even with a single body (birth) with constant practices in the prescribed order, little by little, like the order of monkey. (Note: Monkey eats food little by little at a time).

If the body ceases to exist before getting mastery over yoga, with the latent impressions left by the experiences of the previous birth, he will get another body. By the influence of virtuosity accrued during the previous births and the grace of the Guru, he will attain success. The goal is reached quickly by having resorted to the path of Susumna being advanced by the practice made during the previous births.

The importance of Practice
There is one doctrine known as Kaaka-Mata (wherein Lord Maheswara has control over Maya). There is yet another doctrine beyond Kaaka-Mata. That is Abyasa-yoga. (Yoga attained by practical techniques). Liberation is achieved only through that and not by any means. 

Benefits of Sushumna Yoga
Except for the path of Susumna, there exists no other path to liberation. It is attainable only through the practice of Hatha Yoga along with the dissolution of Jivatman and the like. Diseases perish just by starting the practice. The inborn dullness perishes next. Balance reached and the moon starts to shower. Then the fire along with Prana consumes the humour of the body. The various types of sounds manifest and the body turns younger and blooms. He overcomes cold due to shower and the like. He becomes capable of travelling through the ethereal regions. He gains all the knowledge. He assumes any form of his choice. He attains wind-like speediness. He travels through the three worlds if he wishes. Different psychic powers like this accrue.

When the camphor is consumed by fire, then where will be the solidity of camphor? When the I-ness is consumed by the yoga, where will be the rigidity of the body? The kings of yoga can do anything they want, on their own self, assuming numerous forms. Such Yogis will become Jivan-mukta, without any doubt.

Siddhis (psychic powers) are of two kinds: natural and artificial. The psychic powers obtained by employing the means of mercury, herbs and mystic spells are artificial psychic powers which are transitory and less potential. The powers obtained without the employment of the above means are generated in the course of yoga of Atman and the source of these powers are acceptable to Lord Iswara. The powers obtained in this way are not artificial and are manifested on their own accord, as a result of the prolonged practice of yoga and these powers are devoid of the impressions of the previous births. These powers are long-lasting and high potential. These powers should be safeguarded by the yogi who takes his stand in Paramatman through Maha Yoga. These powers should be kept in profound secret when there is no real need for them. This is usual procedure being adopted by the adepts in yoga.

As the city of Benares is accessible through various paths, the Siddhis are attainable on their own accord through various paths in the course of yoga. A cluster of Siddhis is on the way whether they have been sought after or not. Like the quality of the gold is being determined by the Goldsmith, A yogi or a Jivan Mukta is determined by the psychic powers. The common worldly qualities are missing in him often. One may assume a person without psychic powers as bound.

A Jivan Mukta is one who has the knowledge of Brahman and whose body is devoid of old age and death. Animals, birds, worms and other beings meet their death.

Do they (Jivan Muktas) attain liberation by cutting the cycle of births and deaths? Prana will not come out of them. As a result, they won’t meet death. The liberation with the fall of the body is the liberation foiled. When the body has attained the state of Brahman like the salt dissolved in the water, he is said to be the liberated one. The limbs and organ of senses are inconsistent. Brahman has attained the form of the body like water attained the form of a bubble.

The body is the temple of Lord Siva
The body is a city of ten gates. Ten kinds of Airs travels through the ten kinds of high-ways Of Nadis there. It is connected with ten organs of perceptions and motor actions. It is also provided with six chambers of energy centres called chakras and a great forest fit for the practice of six-fold yoga: Mantra Yoga, Laya Yoga, Hatha Yoga, Raja Yoga, Bhavana Yoga and Sahaja Yoga. It is provided with four Pitas (seats) of Vedas upon which Mahalinga is seated with its innermost consciousness of Nada and Bindu. Thus the body is the temple of Lord #Siva bestowing powers.

The #Muladhara is triangular in shape and is located in between the anus and the genitals. It is the seat of Lord Siva in human form. It is the place where the Para-Sakthi in Kundalini form is located. It is the place where the vital air originates, where the fire originates, whence Bindu originates, Where Nada generates, where Hamsa is generated and where the mind is created. It is the seat known as Kamarupa which bestows the fruits of desire.

At the root of the genitals is Swadhisthana with six corners. In the region of the navel is Manipura with 10 petals. Anahata is the great plexus located in heart region known as the seat of Purna-Giri. Visuddhi has sixteen petals and is situated in the well of the throat, the seat of Jalandhara. The great plexus Ajna with two petals is situated in between the brows. The great seat Uddiyana is established over this.

The presiding deities of Chakras

Lord Brahma is the presiding deity of the earth of four petals (Muladhara). Lord Vishnu is the presiding deity of the water in the form of a half-moon (Swadhisthana). Lord Rudra is the presiding deity of the triangular region of Fire (Manipura). Lord Iswara is the presiding deity of air (Vayu) of six petals (Anahata). Lord Sadasiva is the presiding deity of the circular region of ether (Visuddhi). The region of mind is the centre of eyebrows which is known as in the form of Natha (Anja).

Chapter 2

Hiranyagarbha asked Lord Maheswara to explain the quality of yoga that bestows the wisdom that radiates like the Sun. Lord Maheswara answered: It should be kept as a profound secret.

For him who render a selfless service to his Guru for twelve years, Guru imparts the Vidya (science) in addition to the real knowledge of Brahman. Not to be bestowed upon as a result of pride of knowledge or in quest of money or out of error of judgement. The Vidya learnt, heard and carried out this way will not render results.

He only who understands the Mula-mantra as explained by Guru succeeds.

The Mula-Mantra constituting Siva and Sakthi emanates from Muladhara. He who is capable of hearing that mantra is rare. This mantra is the seat and Nada-Linga has my characteristics. The mere knowledge of it quickly makes anybody a #Jivanmukta and enriched with the Siddhis (psychic powers) like Anima (attenuation) and the like.

The term mantra is called as such because it is being used to meditate upon, it helps the flow of vital energy and it is also being used as an aid to invoke my form. It is called as Mula-mantra (the base mantra) because it is based on me, it is the root of all mantras, it is originating from Muladhara, and it is the basic form of Linga. (The mantra indicated here is Pranava).

Linga is called as such because of its subtle and casual nature, because of its static nature and mobility and because of its symbolic form representing Iswara.

Sutra is called as such because of its presence everywhere at all time and because it is indicative of its form.

The universe is being sustained by Maha-Maya (the great goddess of illusion), Maha-Lakshmi (the great goddess of wealth), Maha-Devi (the great goddess) and Sarasvati (the goddess of wisdom) and Kundalini Sakthi emanating from Muladhara. It exists as Bindu in casual and subtle form and Pita (seat) in gross form.

Being recited by Prana, having exhaustively broken the seat of Bindu, by assuming Sanmukhi Mudra in accordance with the guidelines of Guru, Natha-Linga flashes at once.

Kinds of Brahman
The forms the Brahman are of three kinds: Vairaja, Hiranyagarbha and Natha. The gross form constituted by the five Maha-Bhutas (great elements) is Vairaja Brahman. The Subtle form is Hiranyagarbha and the form constituted by the three Beeja letters (seed letters AUM) is Natha Brahman.

By the practice of Atma-Mantra (Aham Brahmasmi, Tat Tvam Asi and other Maha Vakya Mantras), there manifests the transcendent Brahman which is the highest truth, the Pure Consciousness of Bliss, immeasurable, indemonstrable, beyond the range of speech and thought, pure, subtle, permanent, detached, indivisible, unequaled and non-ailing.

The signs of manifestation are the doors of psychic powers. The flame of a lamp, the moon, the firefly, stars and other bright objects in subtle form are seen by the yogi who has reached this state. The wealth of Siddhis (psychic powers) like Anima (attenuation) is bestowed upon him at once.

There is no mantra higher than Natha. No God greater than one’s own Atman. No worship higher than inquiry. No happiness higher than contentment. He who is keen to get psychic powers should always keep this as secret.

Having understood this, the worshiper of mine (the devotee of Lord Maheswara) becomes blessed and happy. The meanings explained here will manifest in the great soul who has the devotion to the Lord Iswara, like it is manifested in Guru and Lord Iswara.

Chapter 3
Having realised the Consciousness which is the prime of the cause of all Siddhis (Psychic powers), liberation from the bondage of birth is attained.  It is described as Parama Aksara (letter), Natha, and Sabda Brahman. There resides a power called Bindu in Muladhara. Natha sprouts there like a subtle seed. The yogi sees the universe through that and it is called Pasyanthi. When this sound is placed in the heart, it resembles like the sounds of thunder. It is known as Mathyama. It is also called as Vikhari and it is known as Svara when merged with Prana.

The Sanskrit letters “A” through “ksa” should be uttered with proper movement of Palate and the like. The form of the tree is assumed by the sprouts and branches. Likewise, the letters and words form the sentences. Mantra, Veda and scriptures in their entirety are formed like that. The Puranas, epics, different languages, the seven musical notes, folk songs and everything produced out of sounds are the sentences of letters.  Thus Goddess Sarasvati abides in the hearts of all beings and assumes the form of the words of two or three syllables by the wind and fire at different stages.

The yogi, who has attained the power of Vaikhari by the grace of Goddess Sarasvati, is bestowed with the amazing power of speech. He will become, on his own, the author of Vedas, Scriptures and epics.

Parama Aksara
Parama Aksara is the place wherein Bindu, Natha, the sun, the moon, fire, air and all senses get dissolved, wherein all vital airs get dissolved, and wherein the mind takes its repose. Nothing is worthy of considering as a higher measure beyond this. Having the mind once taken its stand on it, even a great calamity could not disturb it. Atman is seen by the Atman and rejoices in the Atman. It is the intense happiness which is beyond the reach of senses and perceived only by the intellect. Parama Aksara lies beyond whatever is perishable and imperishable. All beings are perishable. Atman is imperishable. The Brahman which is unattached and indeterminate is imperishable. It is matchless, aimless, description-less, definition-less, beyond all sides, incomprehensible, support-less, support of all beings, immeasurable, beyond the range of perception, atom-less,  soundless, formless, intangible, without limbs, omniscient, Omnipresent, peaceful, living in the hearts of all, capable being grasped by the guidelines of Guru, incapable of being grasped even with great efforts by those not gifted with a good intellect, beyond any measure, quality-less, changeless, independent, smear less, immovable, unaffected and constant.

The celebrity of the celebrities, placed at the frontiers of darkness. It is free from assumptions and non-assumptions and within the reach of assumptions. It can be attained by means of devotion and the mind being turned inside. The assumption is the cause and it is the cause of assuming the corporal entity again. If a man meditates upon a subject, his mind gets a deep insight into the subject. If he meditates upon me, he gets dissolved in me.

Chapter 4

The Consciousness and the phenomenal world
The assumption of a form in the consciousness is equally perceived by Jiva as such without any difference. Even if a rope is assumed as a snake, it is perceived by Jiva as a snake only. In the absence of the knowledge about the rope, the aspect of a snake is put on the rope by the consciousness. It is the consciousness alone. The phenomenal world is consciousness alone, the aspects of which are the put-on. (Note: The moment when the real knowledge dawns, the phenomenal world ceases to exist and the consciousness alone remains).
Brahman is the cause of the phenomenal world. Hence the whole of the phenomenal world is Brahman only. Nothing else. Where is the room for difference of opinions?, if the truth is understood as: All is Brahman and Brahman transcends all. For this reason, all beings take their root in Brahman. For this reason, everything is Brahman alone. Brahman alone is the prop of diverse names, forms and actions. The quality of gold is found forever in the ornaments made out of gold. Likewise, Brahman is found in all that are made out of Brahman.

The fearful consequences are the results when one talks with foolish people who make even the slightest difference between Atman and Paramatman. Ignorance is the cause of the dualism. He sees dualism in other things too. When the wisdom dawns, he starts to see the characters of Atman in all except no atom.

Though the world is being experienced by us and we could carry out daily routines, it is in the form of non-existence like a dream which may be undone next minute. There is no waking state (Jagrat) in a dream (Swapna) and no dream in a waking state. Neither of them is present in deep sleep (Susupti) and nor the deep sleep is present in them. All these three are the results of three Gunas and false. He who knows this transcends the three Gunas and three states. It is a state of consciousness and it is eternal. Like the delusion that the state of being earth is lost in earthen pot and silver is lost in pearl-oyster, Brahman is lost in Jiva. The delusion disappears when observed in the closed-quarters. The earth is always apparent in the earthen pot. The gold is apparent in the golden ornaments. Likewise, Brahman is apparent in Jiva. The phenomenal world is in the Atman like the blue colour observed in ethereal space or mirage observed in a desert or hut in a log of wood. In principle, the existence of the phenomenal world is like the vampire (Vedal) reducing itself to the Void, the existence of the city of Gandharva in the celestial spaces, and two moons in the ethereal space. The water is identified with the waves, small or big, the earth with the pot, and the thread with the cloth. Likewise, Brahman is identified with the phenomenal world. All is Brahman alone.

A sterile woman has no sons. The desert has no waters. The sky has no trees. Likewise, the phenomenal world has no existence. When a pot is rubbed, the earth manifests. Likewise, the phenomenal world is closely examined, Brahman alone manifests.

I am the Atman that is pure. It appears to be impure. Like the rope is perceived differently by knowing the person and the ignorant and like pot is perceived differently, the consciousness also differently perceived.
The difference between Atman and Anatman is made in vain by the wise men. Like the rope is perceived by the ignorant person as a snake, pearl-oyster as silver, the state of Atman also perceived as the character of the body.

Earth is considered as the pot, mirage as water, logs of wood as house and iron as the sword. Likewise, ignorance is attached Atman.

Chapter 5
Again I (Lord Maheswara) reveal the secrets of yoga to you. Listen with due attention. The body is a city of ten gateways, provided with ten high-ways of Nadis, journeyed by the ten vital airs, covered by ten senses of perception and action, with ten chambers of plexuses. It is the great forest fit for the performance of six-fold yoga with four seats provided with four lamps of Vedas. It is the residence of Bindu, Natha, the great Linga, Vishnu and Lakshmi. It is said to be the temple of Vishnu granting special boons to the mortals.

#Muladhara is located in between anus and genitals. It is the seat of Lord Siva in the form of Jiva. In there, the wonderful power Kundalini is found. Vital Air originates there. Bindu and Fire take their origin there. Natha manifests there. Hamsa is created there. The mind has its origin there. It is the seat of Kama-rupa that gratifies all desires.
At the root of the genitals, the plexuses called #Svadhisthana with six petals is located. In the region of the navel, #Manipura with ten-petals is situated. #Anahata plexuses otherwise known as Purna-Giri with its twelve petals is located at the region of the heart. #Visuddhi with sixteen petals is at the well of the throat. #Anja with its two petals is found at the middle of eyebrows. Over this, the seat of Uddiyana is found.

Lord Brahman is the presiding deity of the earth chakra with four spokes. Lord Vishnu is the presiding deity of the water chakra in the form of the half-moon. Lord Rudra is the presiding deity of the fire chakra in triangular form. Lord Sankarsa is the presiding deity of air chakra with six poxes. Lord Narayana is the presiding deity of the ether chakra in circular form. Lord Sambhu is presiding deity of mind chakra in Natha form. This has been already explained to you.

Henceforth, Nadi-chakra is declared. Susumna with a length of twelve Angulas stands at the triangular Muladhara. It appears as a bamboo half-split at the root. It is known as Brahma-Nadi. On either side of it, Nadis Ida and Pingala are located. Vilambini is interwoven in between till it reaches the nostrils. The golden air flow through Ida in the left. The air with the quality of the Sun flows through Pingala in the right. Vilambini is peculiarly placed in the navel which is the junction of Nadis originating and going upwards, downwards and cross-wise, making the navel chakra like the egg of the hen. Gandhari and Hasti-jihva originate therefrom and proceed to the two eyes. Pusa and Alambusa to the ears. Therefrom the great Nadi Sura proceeds to the middle of the eyebrows. Visvodari Nadi digest foods of four kinds. Sarasvati Nadi goes to the tip of the tongue. Raka Nadi quickly consumes water and produce Sneezing and phlegm in the nose. Sankhini originates from the throat cavity and heads down to fetch food and fills in the crest. Three Nadis are going downwards below the navel. Kuhu evacuates faeces. Varuni helps discharge urine and Citra, the Nadi of frenum of the prepuce, helps discharge semen. This is known as Nadi-Chakra.

Forms of Brahman
The forms of Brahman are of three kinds: Gross, Subtle and Transcendent. The gross is Bindu with the quality of semen. The subtle one is the form five fires (Pancha Agni). The transcendent one is the form with the quality of the moon. Achuta (Lord Narayana) is the eternal witness.

The Five Fires
Kalagni is established in the nether region. Mulagni where the Natha manifests is established in the body. Vadavagni is established in the middle of the bones wherein the fire of wood and stone are placed. It is of earth and seated in the portion of the alimentary canal through which the vital warmth is distributed.
The fire that is placed in the mid-ethereal region is of lightning and has inner qualities of Atman.

The fire that is placed in the ethereal region is of Sun and stands in the navel region. This Sun showers poison downwards and nectar upwards. The Moon standing at the root of the palate showers nectar downwards. Bindu of crystal form is seated at the middle of the eyebrows. This is known as Maha-Vishnu in subtle form.

The intelligent yogi knowing these five fires conceives that the food and drinks eaten by him contribute the sacrificial offering to the fires only, without any doubt.

The process of awakening the Kundalini
With aspirations of good health, moderate and well-digested food, purifying his body first, assuming a convenient posture, the yogi should purify the Nadis with inhalation, retention and exhalation. Having constricted the anus with effort (Mula-Bandha), he should first worship Kundalini.

He should perform Uddiyana Bandha in the navel and in the middle of the genitals. By doing this, the power flies up to the seat of Uddiyana (the seat of Uddiyana is located above Ajna). He should perform Jalandhara bandha by constricting his throat a little. Then with a firm mind, he should perform Kechari-Mudra by moving his tongue back to the cavity of the cranium and turn his eyes into the interior of his eyebrows. When the cavity behind the uvula is blocked by doing Kechari-Mudra, the downward dripping nectar is stopped and it blocks upward movement of Prana. The hunger, thirst, sleep and indolence vanish. For him who knows Kechari-Mudra, there is no death.

The seat of Uddiyana is located at the front and rear of the Dvadasantha region which is the abode of Achuta (Lord Narayana). Reaching the middle of the disc of the moon showering always the nectar, the yogi should meditate upon Lord Narayana who is seated in the middle of the lotus and who non-dual, support-less and unattached. Then he should break the heart chakra. All doubts and Karmas will vanish. Then he could see what is on this shore and on the other.

Henceforth I explain the Siddhis (psychic powers) and the ways to attain them by those who conquered their senses, breath and mind and attained tranquillity. The reposing the mind on Natha gives #clairaudience. The reposing the mind on Bindu gives #clairvoyance. The reposing the mind on Kalatman gives the knowledge of the past, present and future. The focusing the mind on the body of another enables the yogi to enter into another body.
To counteract the effects of hunger, thirst and poison, one should concentrate on the nectar in the ethereal cavity of the crest. Performing Dharana on the earth enables one to travel to the netherworld. Performing Dharana on the water, one will mastery over water-borne troubles. Dharana on power will give him mastery over fire. He will not be touched by fire. On air, levitation. On ether, Siddhis like Anima (psychic powers like attenuation) and the like. Performing Dharana on Viraj, he could increase his size at his will. Dharana on Lord Brahman makes him the creator of the world. On Lord Indra, all carnal pleasures. On Lord Vishnu, the sustenance of the universe. On Lord Rudra, he can even destroy the radiance of him. On Lord Narayana, he becomes Narayana. On Lord Vasudeva, all success. In the same manner, the yogi can attain anything by performing Dharana on the objects intended. For this, the mind is the cause.

Guru is Brahman. Guru is Vishnu. Guru is always Achuta. No one is higher than Guru in all the worlds. One should worship Guru with extreme devotion who grants divine wisdom, who is the spiritual guide and who is the Supreme Lord himself. One that worships Guru attains the fruit of knowledge. Guru is like Supreme Lord and Supreme Lord is like Guru. He should worship them with great devotion. No difference is between them. One should not make an argument with Guru regarding the equality of status anywhere. With devotion, one should always contemplate on Guru, God and Atman.
The yogi of intellect will know the secret of Yoga Sikha. Nothing is unknown to him in all the three worlds. The effects of virtuous act or sin, the cause of distress, sorrow, defeat, being in the cycle of birth and death are not for him on any account.

The yogi should not, even at the least oscillation, allow his mind to dwell on Siddhis. Nevertheless, once he comes to know this truth, he will be liberated without any doubt.

Chapter 6

The method of Kundalini activation
Hiranyagarbha asked to explain the method of kundalini activation by which the liberation is achieved.

I now declare the secret practice and method to be performed. For having the knowledge to attain the fruits following it, listen carefully and perform the practice in the right way. My salutations to Susumna, Chandra-Mandala-Sudha, Kundalini, Manonmani, Maha-Sakthi and Chit-Atman. (Note: They are personified as Goddesses or God).

One hundred and one Nadis emanates from the heart region. Of these one goes up to the crest. Going with this Nadi, one attains immortality. A hundred other Nadis goes in other directions of which one is Para. Susumna rests in Para which is pure and in the form of Brahman. Ida is on the left and Pingala on the right. The supreme seat is in between these two. The knower of Veda knows this.

One should retain the breath inhaled to prolong the duration of the breath. This should be practised only by the stages. At the hind of the anus, there is Veena-Danda (vertebral column). Up to the end of the bony-frame, Brahma Nadi is extended. It is located in between Ida and Pingala as a fine tube in the form of Sun. This Susumna is called as Brahma Nadi by sages.

All Nadis spreading throughout the body originate from Susumna. The Sun, Moon, Fire and Parameswara are located along its course. Likewise, Bhutas, directions, sacred places, oceans, rocks, mountains, rivers, Vedas, scriptures, supreme sciences, arts and crafts, Alphabets, musical notes, mantras, epics, Gunas, Bijas (seed letters), Bijatman, vital airs and their witnesses.  The phenomenal world exists inside. Everything in the body is reached by Susumna, the inner Atman, through tiny Nadis connecting the remote parts. The Prana reaches everywhere through the path of Susumna with its roots upwards and the branches downwards. There are seventy-two thousand Nadis spread over the body through which Prana travels. What could be the use of these paths of Prana in the Nadis going upwards, downwards and crosswise, if the Kundalini obstructs the path?

The yogi could attain liberation with the knowledge of Kundalini and Prana. After knowing the Susumna and pierce opening it and passing Prana vital air through the middle of Susumna, he should control in the root of the nostril at the middle of eyebrows.

Of the 72000 Nadis, Susumna is the Goddess Shambhavi, the rest of them are nothing if “Hreem” is established at the root of Palate. He should fix his mind there which is the place of supreme consciousness and recite the mantra of Para-Sakthi who is residing in Brahma Randhra (the crevice of Brahman). Brahma Srishti is attained. Then he should forgo the delusion of worldly affairs.

The darkness inside everyone is destroyed by the lamp of supreme consciousness. It is capable of being reached and not reached as well. I salute the Hamsa in the form of Paramatman.

The sound of Anahata
The sound of Anahata is uncreated. In the interior of the echo of that sound, there exists a radiance. The mind exists in that radiance. The dissolution of the mind there brings an extreme state of Vishnu.

It is believed that Susumna and Sarasvati are Adhara (the basic powers). Adhara is where the universe manifests and dissolves. For this (knowledge), one should take refuge to the feet of Guru. (Note: Adhara means the base or the cause. Here it refers to the power of Kundalini).

When the power resides in Adhara is latent, the universe is overpowered by passivity. When it becomes active, the three worlds are active. He who knows Adhara comes out of darkness. The mere knowledge destroys all sins. If the Guru is pleased, the liberation is achieved without any doubt through the power of Adhara that radiates like a cluster of lightning. He should cut asunder the effects of virtuous acts and sins with the lustre of (laser) Adhara.

By restraining Prana in Adhara Chakra, the yogi seeks repose in other ethereal regions. By restraining Prana in Adhara Chakra, his body shakes, he dances forever, and he sees the universe as one. Adhara of all beings is Adhara only. (The cause of all beings is the prime cause: Brahman). All Vedas and all deities dwell in Adhara only. Therefore have recourse to Adhara. In Adhara, three Nadis confluence. Bathing and drinking destroy all sins. Paschima Linga and its doors exist in Adhara. By breaking the doors open, one gets liberated from the bondage of the world. In the rear side of Adhara, there is Sun and the moon. There stands the lord of universe contemplating upon whom the union with is attained.

On the rear side of the Adhara, the deities take their abode.  He should restrain the Prana that came out of Brahma Randhra through Ida and Pingala. He should forcibly open the doors of Susumna and six chakras and reach Sahasrara, the place of Supreme consciousness, and repose there. He who enters the Brahma Randhra attains the highest state.

Sushumna Yoga
Hamsa goes up and down by the cause of the movement of Prana. If Prana enters in Susumna, it is steady and the Sun and the Moon get dissolved. He who knows the repose is the real knower of yoga. All the knots will break, all doubts will vanish, he will get lost in the transcendent ether and attains the supreme state when the current of the mind is lost in Susumna, when the yogi takes his stand in Susumna even for a single minute, when the yogi has got command in Susumna even for half a minute, and when the yogi gets dissolved in Susumna like salt or milk in water.

Bathing in river Ganges or in the ocean or worshipping the Manikarnika does not render even a sixteenth part of Susumna Yoga.

Liberation is guaranteed for one who visits Sri-Saila, who dies at Benares, who drinks the water of Kedara and who sees the middle Nadi Susumna.

Thousands of Asva-medha yagnya or hundreds of Vajapeya Yagnya does not render even the one-sixteenth of Susumna Meditation.

All the sins vanish for him who discourses on Susumna and he will attain the eternal bliss.

Sushumna Yoga alone is the holiest pilgrimage. It is alone the most efficacious prayer. It is alone the supreme meditation. It is alone the earnest goal. The different kinds of sacrifices, worships, charities, vows and Viradhas are not equal to even a sixteenth part of Susumna Yoga.

Lord Siva, the supreme consciousness, takes repose in Brahma Randhra. The Goddess Maha-Devi resides in Susumna. Maya-Sakthi (Goddess of illusion) resides at the foremost part of the forehead. In the middle of the forehead Para-Sakthi (the supreme Goddess) in the form of Natha. In the hind part of the forehead, Sakthi in the form of Bindu. Inside Bindu, Jiva resides in subtle form. In the middle of the heart, Jiva resides in gross form.

Jiva being controlled by Prana and Apana leaps up and down, not moving sideways. Like a ball repeatedly being thrown on the ground by the forearm, Jiva goes up and down without rest. Apana and Prana attract each other. It goes out with the sound Ha and comes in with the sound of Sa. Jiva always recites this Mantra: “Hamsa”, “Hamsa”. Jiva becomes imperishable by knowing this.

In the place above the navel, Kundalini in the form of Liberation for Yogis. For ignorant, it is bondage.

The three worlds, Bhur, Bhuvar and Suvar, the moon, sun and fire are the deities. The Pranava Om is the transcending radiance. Three durations of past, present and future, three deities of Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra, the three worlds of Bhur, Bhuvar and Suvar, the three Svara of Hrasva, Dirgha and Pluta and three Vedas of Rig, Yajur and Sama take their stand on the transcending radiance Om.

Mind Yoga
When the mind is moving, it is engaged in worldly matters. When it is immobile, it is liberation. Therefore it is the supreme wisdom to make the mind fixed. The mind is the cause of all ends and aims of life. If it remains, the world exists. If it dissolves, the world vanishes. It should be taken care of with effort.

I, the mind, am the aspect of ether. I, the mind, direct myself everywhere. I, the mind, am Atman in all. Brahman is not the mind alone. Actions are initiated by the mind. It is the mind that is behind the sinful actions. One reaches ecstasy with the mind if there are no effects caused by virtuous and sinful actions. The mind becomes void if the mind is looked upon by the mind. Then it will see the Para Brahman. The yogi who looks his mind with his mind gets liberated. Looking the mind with mind, one should only remember his final ecstasy. By doing so, he is intent on yoga forever. By doing so, he will see Dasa-pratyaya (the convictions like I am the Brahman and the like). If he recognizes those convictions, he becomes the lord of yoga. Bindu, Natha, Kala, Jyotir, Otr, Avikalpa all are Para Brahman only.

In the body, the mind experiences delight or pain with the help of memory, when one laughs, rejoices, is afraid of danger, quarrels, takes revenge, grieves, gets intoxicated with new fortune, is in communion with opposite gender and smiles. Wherever the Prana goes into the body, the mind goes there. The mind is regarded as the moon, sun, air, two eyes and fire. They are Bindu, Natha, Kala and the deities Brahma, Vishnu and Isvara.

Applying the mind on Natha wipes away the previous impression in the mind. In the absence of attachment, Prana and mind their repose. What is Natha is Bindu and again that is mind. It is told as such. The union of Natha, bind and the mind should be attained. The mind like Bindu is the cause behind the creation and sustenance. Bindu is produced out of mind like the ghee out of milk.

The thorough knowledge of six chakras makes one enter into his comfort zone, Susumna. Having entered into it, drawing the Prana he should push it higher. He should practice it well with Bindu, Chakras and the Mind. The Yogi attains Samadhi and nectar only simultaneously.

Without the practice of yoga, the lamp of wisdom will not glow like the fire in the wood will not rise without churning. The lamp inside the pot does not shine. If the pot is broken, the shine will manifest. One’s body is like a pot and Jiva is the lamp. Only when it is broken with aid of the wisdom of Guru, Brahman manifests. Taking refuge to Guru, who holds the rudder to run the boat, one should cross the ocean of the worldly existence with the power gained by the practice of yoga and the impressions left by the association of the righteous people.
Om! Tat! Sat!

Ref: Sanskrit Text Reference


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