Ahimsa - Non-Violence
Sathya - Truth
Asteya - Non-stealing
Brahmacharya - Celibacy
Daya - Compassion
Arjava - Straight-forwardness
Kshama - Perseverance
Drutir - Willpower
Shaucha - Cleanliness
Atman is Brahman
Tapas - Penance
What is Liberation? How can it be attained? What makes anyone to attain the wheel of births and deaths? For the learned, the inquiries like these which give insight into the importance of the inner things are Tapas.
Santosh - rejoice
Astikya - faith in scriptures
Dhaana - Charity
Isvara Pujita -God Worship
Siddhanta Sravana - Study of Scriptures
Hree - Modesty
Mathi - Adherence to Scriptures
Japa - Chanting
Nadi and Prana
The Nadi located in the middle of the knot of navel is Susumna. Seventy two thousand Nadis stand around it. Among them, fourteen Nadis are important.
Prana always present in the middle of the neck, nose, navel and heart.
Apana is always present in the middle of the anus, thighs, knees, the whole belly, navel, hip, and shanks.
Udana is present in legs and hands.
Samana pervades all parts of the body, without any doubt.
The second five Vayus starting from Naga are present in skin, bones and the like.
The Functions of Vayus
The functions of Prana are the inhalation, exhalation and coughing. The works of Apana are the evacuation of faeces and urine. Samana pulls everything to the proximity. Udana lift things up, without any doubt. Vyana causes clashes.
Naga does belching. Dhanjaya swelling. Kurma does the work of shutting the eyes. Krkara is making hunger. Bringing sleep is the work of Deva-datta.
The Deities of NadisSiva is the deity of Susumna. Hari is for Ida. Brahman is for Pingala. Viraj is for Sarasvati. Pusan is for Pusa. For Hasti-jihva, Varuna is the deity. For Yajasvini, the Sun. For Alambusa, Varuna. For Kuhu, the God of hunger. For Gandhari and Sankini, the moon is the deity. For Prajapati is the deity of Payasvini. Pavaka is for Visvodara.
The movement inside the NadisThe moon always travels through Ida. Likewise the sun through Pingala.
The passage of Vayu from Pingala to Ida is known as Northern course and Ida to Pingala is southern course.
When Prana reaches the junction of Ida and Pingala, it is new moon in the body.
When Prana enters Muladhara, it is said to be the first equinox by the dedicated performer of penance and when Prana enters the cranium, it is the last equinox of the performer.
All inhalations and exhalations are the passage of months. When the Prana reaches Kundalini through Ida, it is said to be the lunar eclipse. If it is through Pingala, it is solar eclipse.
Pilgrimage places inside the bodySri-Parvata is at the crest. Kedara in the forehead. Benares is at the junction of brows and nose. Kurushetra is at the chest. Prayaga is at the heart chakra. In the middle of the heart is Chidambaram. Kamalalaya is in Muladhara.
Having abandoned the pilgrimage waters inside the body and resorting to external waters of pilgrimage places is like going after broken pieces of glass having abandoned the gems in hands.
The pilgrimage resort of abstract meditation is the supreme resort that is the proper remedy for all the sins. The wife is caressed with one focus and the daughter is caressed with a different focus.
The yogi, having faith in his own Atman, should not resort to pilgrimage waters nor Gods made of wood and the like.
The internal pilgrimage resort is by far superior to external pilgrimage resorts. The Thirtha (water of the pilgrimage places) of Atman is greatest Thirtha. Other Thirthas have no significance.
If the internal Thirtha of Chitta (mind) is contaminated, it cannot be purified by ceremonial baths and ablutions like a liquor-pot is not purified even after hundreds of washings with water.
A man becomes pure (bodily) by bathing at places like Varanasi during solstices, equinoxes, eclipses and at intervening periods always.
The Thirtha flowing from the washed feet of great men who are in pursuit of the true knowledge and attainment of yoga, it is the Thirtha for the purification of the contaminated mind of the ignorant. (Note: It means that only the grace of Guru purifies).
Shiva is firmly established in the body. The fools seek Shiva in the woods, stones, sacrifices, chanting, charity and sacred waters. It is like the person who serves food licks his elbow after throwing off the ball of food. (Giving up Shiva who stands inside and seeking him externally).
The yogis look for Shiva inside and not in images which have been created for ignorant people to conceive the Supreme Being.
He who sees the eternal, real, non-dual, omniscient and bliss Brahman as his own Atman knows that. Always realize with the help of your own mind " I am the Atman" , giving up the cluster of Nadis and the human state on your own accord.
On seeing the almighty, incorporeal, blissful and eternal Brahman in all the bodies, the yogi fortifies himself and does not experience grief. By the strength of his wisdom, the ignorance that produces the difference between Atman and Brahman is altogether lost.
What is the difference between Atman and Brahman? There exists no difference.
Purification of Nadis
Sage Sankriti asked Sage Dattatreya to explain the purification of Nadis by means of which one can attain Jivan-mukti meditating constantly.
Dattatreya proceeds to explain briefly the mode of purification.
The aspirant having regulated his actions and conducts in line with the prescriptions of the scriptures, being devoid of desires and volition, having endowed with the eight limbs of yoga starting from Yama, being in tranquil, having resorted to the ultimate truth, and having confirmed in his own self properly instructed by the enlightened should resort to a Math (ancient place for practice) either at the top of a hill or on the banks of a river, or under Bilva tree or at a forest which is pleasant and clean.
Then he should assume a posture facing east or north with his neck, head and body erect in a straight line, having closed his mouth and eyes, becoming motionless and start the yoga practice to see with his eyes the tip of the nose, the disc of the moon in the middle of the Bindu, the fourth state of consciousness, and the nectar that falls down.
Inhaling the Prana through left nostril and keeping it in the belly visualising the fire in the middle of the body, he should meditate on the seed of fire ("Ram") with Bindu and Nada. Then he should exhale the Prana through right nostril. Again he should inhale through right nostril and meditate on the seed of the fire. Then he should exhale the Prana through left nostril.
He should practice this six times at three junctions of the day for three to four days (uniformly for each day).
By constantly following this, he attains purification of the Nadis that reflects in lightness of the body, glowing of fire in the belly, and the clear manifestation of sound. The symptoms are the indications for successful mastery. He should continue the practice till he sees the symptoms.
Then he should proceed to purify his Atman. The true nature of Atman is that it is always pure, eternal, self-luminous and is always in the form of happiness. By the impact of ignorance, it is seen as impure. By the impact of wisdom, its purity is seen. He alone is pure who washes away the mud of impurity with the water of true knowledge. Not others who are bound by Karma.
PranayamaSage Dattatreya proceeds to present the description of Pranayama.
Pranayama consists of Rechaka, Puraka and Kumbhaka which are in the forms of the triplets of the letters. Pranava is one such form of triplet. Pranayama is made up of that.
He should Inhale through left nostril visualising the form of the letter "A" for the duration of sixteen Matras.
Thereupon he should retain the Prana in the belly for the duration of sixty-four Matras visualising the form of the letter "U" and muttering the Pranava mentally.
He who is indent on this should hold the air to his maximum convenient capacity. (Note: This means that the said proportion of Rechaka, Puraka and Kumbhaka should be maintained without any strain on the part of the performer. That is why the ratio 16:64:32 is prescribed).
Then he should exhale through right nostril for the duration of thirty-two Matras visualising the letter "M".
This is one Pranayama and it should be followed further.
Then he should inhale through right nostril for the duration of sixteen Matras visualising the letter "A" with one-pointed mind. He should retain the Prana with the understanding that he does it without any inconvenience for the duration of sixty-four Matras visualising the letter "U" muttering the Pranava. Then he should exhale through left nostril for the duration of thirty-two Matras visualising the letter "M".
He should repeat the practice with the understanding that he should continue with inhaling through left nostril. Likewise, it should be repeated daily.
If he continues in this manner for six months, he will become the man of wisdom. Within one year, he acquires the knowledge of Brahman. He should continue practice daily. He who has resorted to daily practice discharging his duties is released from bondage from the practice of Pranayama alone with the knowledge gained therefrom.
Puraka is inhaling the Prana from outside. Retaining the Prana in the belly is Kumbhaka. Expelling the Prana outside is known as Rechaka.
The inferior type of Pranayama produces the profound perspiration. The moderate type of Pranayama generates tremor in the body. The superior type gives levitation. Hence it should be practised earnestly from stage to stage to attain levitation. Once attained, he becomes an adept and found himself in happiness.
Pranayama purifies the mind. When the mind is purified, the inner radiance becomes visible to his own eyes. Prana along with mind takes its abode in Atman. His body will rise up. The little knowledge gained has the capacity to release him from bondage.
Giving up Rechaka and Puraka, one should take the practice of Kumbhaka alone. (This is for adepts only). His sins will be destroyed and he will attain the great knowledge. He will get swiftness of the mind. The grey hairs and the like will go.
For him who relies on Pranayama alone, nothing is unattainable. Hence one should earnestly take Pranayama with determination.
Benefits of PranayamaThen Sage Dattatreya proceeds to enumerate the benefits of Pranayama to sage Sankriti.
Drawing the Prana from outside, filling up in the belly during the morning and evening twilight or at noon, and holding Prana at the tip of the nose, in the navel, and at the big toes of the feet, a yogi will live for hundred years without diseases.
By holding it at the tip of the nose, the mastery is gained. By holding it at the middle of the navel, diseases are prevented. By holding at the big toes, lightness of the body is the result.
He who drinks the air inhaling through the tongue, will get immunity over diseases, thirst and tiredness.
He who holds the Prana at the root of the tongue will drink the nectar of immortality with the help of tongue.
He who holds the Prana at the middle of the eyebrows after inhaling through the left nostril will drink the pure nectar and alleviate himself from all diseases.
He who holds the Prana at the middle of the navel after inhaling through left nostril and right nostril will be free from all diseases.
For him who holds in the Prana in the navel after inhaling through tongue and drinking the nectar during the twilight of morning as well as evening and noon for one full month, the diseases arising out of the imbalances of Vata (air) and Pitta (bile) will perish.
If the Prana is held in the eyes after inhaling through the nostrils, all diseases pertaining to eyes will be destroyed. Likewise the ears and head too.
Shanmukhi MudraAssuming Svastikasana, having controlled the mind well, forcing slowly the Apana a little by little, muttering Pranava, one should press the ear and other organs of senses with his fingers. He should close the senses of the ears with his thumbs, eyes with his forefingers, and two nostrils with other fingers. He should retain the mind in the head till the manifestation of Bliss happens. By doing this, Prana enters Brahma Randhra, the crevice of Brahman.
When Prana enters there, Nada is generated. At first, it resembles like a Conch-blast. Then in the middle, it resembles a thunderclap roaring like a waterfall in a mountain when Prana enters the middle of the head. Atman who is now pleased appears before him. Then comes the ripeness of the knowledge from yoga and the release from the bondage.
Mastery in PranayamaThen he should press the perineum with his right and left ankles. He should press with his ankles the joints under the knees meditating upon Lord Shiva, Lord Vinayaka and Goddess Sarasvati.
Having drawn up the Prana through the tip of the stalk of the genital along with Pranava and Sperm and confine it in the middle of Muladhara. By this, the fire kindled by the Vayu will be brought to Kundalini. Again there is the union of Prana, Fire and Kundalini in Susumna. He who practises like this will have mastery over Prana.
Profuse perspiration comes first. Then tremor of the body and finally levitation. These are the symptoms of mastery over Pranayama.
For him who has gained mastery, piles, anal fistula and other diseases will vanish. All sins whether they are small or big will go. Then the mind will become clear. Subsequently the experience of Brahman, detachment becomes possible. By detachment, the worldly experience is taken as a tool to attain alone-ness. After knowing the supreme God, he will be released from the bondage.
He who drinks the elixir of wisdom even once, runs away immediately forgoing all actions.
They who have the real knowledge view the world as the form of knowledge. Others view the world as the form of wealth.
By the knowledge of Atman, ignorance is destroyed. On the annihilation of the ignorance, there is annihilation of passions and the like. In the absence of passions and the like, the disappearance of the fruits of actions of virtue and vice. As a result of their disappearance, the dependence of the body comes to an end.
PratyaharaPratyahara is the forceful bringing back of the senses from their natural tendency of going after the objects of sensory pleasure.
Seeing all objects as Brahman with a well controlled mind is Pratyahara. This is according to those who knows Brahman.
All the actions until death, whether pure or impure, are attributed to Brahman. This is Pratyahara.
One should perform his daily duties of ceremonial observances and rites with the attitude of satisfying Brahman alone. This is Pratyahara.
Drawing in the Prana and confining it in place after place: Drawing from the root of the teeth and confining it at the throat. From throat to the chest. From chest to navel. Navel to the place of Kundalini. From the place of Kundalini to Muladhara. Then drawing the Apana to two hips. The hips to the thighs. Then to the knees. The knees to the Shanks. From the Shanks to big toes. This is known as Pratyahara from the times of yore.
All the sins and diseases of worldly existence vanish altogether for him who has the practice of Pratyahara.
Being motionless and Assuming the Svastikasana, he should draw in Prana imagining the Prana is filled from the sole of the feet to head. Then he should draw in from the pair of the feet. Then Muladhara, navel, heart, throat, palate, eyebrow centre and then forehead. And finally he should draw in from the head and retain it there.
Having the mind well under control, having the idea of Atman inside the body, he should confine the Atman in the indescribable non-dual Brahman. This the actual Pratyahara as known by those well versed in Vedanta.
For him who has resorted to practices like this, nothing is unattainable.
DharanaThe sage Dattatreya proceeds to explain the five Dharanas.
In the ethereal space of the body, the outside ether should be meditated. Likewise outside Vayu in Prana, outside fire in belly, water in water region, and earth in the earth region.
He should mutter the mantra as "Ha", "Ya", "Ra", "Va", and "La" respectively. It is the supreme Dharana that gets rid of all the sins.
Up to the knees is the portion of earth. Up to Anus, Water. Up to heart, Fire. Up to the middle of brows, Air. Above that to the head, Ether.
One should meditate Lord Brahman in the portion of earth, Lord Vishnu, in the portion of water, Lord Mahesvara in the portion of Fire, Lord Isvara in the portion of Air, Lord Sadashiva in the portion of ether.
Other I describe other Dharana. The yogi should always meditate on Lord Shiva Who is the basis for all scriptures and bliss as Atman for getting rid of all the sins.
In Pranava, one should meditate upon Brahman who is indistinct and indescribable and who is the prime cause of all and who is complete in Atman, by withdrawing senses and mind and merge them with Atman. In this way, he gets rid off all causes that brings forth the effects of the various forms of Brahman.
DhyanaSage Dattatreya starts describing Dhyana that destroys the worldly existence. One should meditate on Isvara Who is the very Truth, the very existence, Brahman that transcends all, the panacea for diseases of worldly nature, Who has got his retas (semen) turned upwards, and Who has the form of the world. He should meditate upon the great yogi Isvara with the conception that He I am.
Alternatively, for the attainment of Videha mukti, he should meditate Upon Atman that is the very Truth, Existence, consciousness, bliss, non-dual entity, pure, eternal without the beginning, the middle and the end, the subtle, intangible, and imperceptible as Brahman I am.
For the person of great soul who has resorted to the practices of this nature, the knowledge of Vedanta manifest gradually without doubt.
SamadhiThen he proceeds to describe Samadhi that destroys the worldly existence.
Samadhi is the creation of consciousness wherein Jivatman and Paramatman merges. Atman is eternal, transcendental, devoid of blemishes and perfectly identical to Paramatman. Out of delusion, It is divided and seen as separate. There is no duality. There is no phenomenal world. There is no cycle of births and deaths. Like ether is said to be ether of pot and the ether of Math (the place of practice and residence for Guru and disciples), Atman is said to be the form of Jiva and Brahman, out of delusion.
I am not the body, I am not Prana, I am not the senses and I am not the mind. I am just the witness always. I am Shiva alone. This knowledge is known as Samadhi.
I am Brahman. Not the worldly existence. Nothing or no one behind me. In the ocean, foams, waves and the like are generated and dissolved in the same ocean. Likewise the world dissolves in me. There is no such thing as mind nor the delusion of the world. He, in whom Paramatman has manifested, reaches the supreme state, the state of Purusha, on his own accord. When the attainment of Brahman is accomplished, the consciousness pervades all and shines always in the mind and nothing could intervene. If he sees all beings in his own Atman and his Atman in all being, he becomes Brahman. He who does not see all beings in Samadhi, he becomes one with the transcendent Brahman. When one looks upon his Atman as Brahman alone, then all the world becomes delusion alone. There ensues the final bliss.
The great sage Dattatreya said thus to Sage Sankriti who looks upon his own Atman alone without any fear.
Om Tat Sat!
Ref: Sanskrit Text Reference