Pashupatabrahma Upanishad

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Introduction

Pasupatha Brahma Upanishad is also called as Pasupathbrahmopanishad. It is the seventy-seventh Upanishad of Muktika Upanishad order and found attached to Atharva Veda. It has two sections namely Poorva Khanda and Uttara Khanda. Poorva Khanda contains 32 verses mainly dealing with Hamsa Vidya.Uttara Khanda contains 46 verses mainly dealing with Para-Vidya, the philosophy of Atman and Paramatman. (Note: Poorva Khanda means the initial Section and Uttara Khanda means the final section).

Poorva Khanda
When Svayambhu (who originates on his own) Brahman happened to be filled with desires, he became the creator. Then Kamesvara and Vaisravana came into being. Vaisravana belonged to the class of Rishis called Valakhilya who were of the size of the thumb.
Vaisravana asked Brahman seven questions.
What is the Vidya (philosophy and practice) of the Worlds?
Who is the deity? Who is the deity of the Jagrat (waking state) and Turya [the fourth state beyond Jagrat, Swapna (dream) and Susupti

Advaya Taraka Upanishad

Lord Nataraja at Chidambaram
Lord Nataraja

Advaya Taaraka Upanishad is otherwise known as Advayatarakopanishad. It is the 53rd Upanishad of Muktika Order. It is one among the 19 Upanishads of Shukla Yajur Veda and one among the 20 Yoga Upanishads. It is a notable fact the It is composed of prose and poetic verses dislike other Upanishads which are composed of poetic verses only.

Advaya in Sanskrit indicates the oneness or the non-dual.  Taaraka indicates rescue, liberate or deliver. Advaya Taaraka Upanishad means the Upanishad of the non-dual that liberates.

For the sake of the aspirant who has controlled his senses and is having the six qualities of Sama (mental equilibrium), Dama (Self-control over actions), Uparati (tolerance), Titikaa (happiness), Samadhana (one-pointedness)  and Shraddha (unconditional faith),  we hereby explain Advaya Taaraka Upanishad.

What is Taaraka?

Taaraka is named as such because it enables one to dispel the fear of being stuck in the cycle of prenatal existence, birth, old age and death. Abnegating all perceptible things by rejecting as “not this”, and “not this”, one arrives at a final remaining. That final remaining is the Non-dual Brahman. Then comes the realisation that Jiva and Isvara are the results of illusion.

Modes of Attainment

Three ways are available for the attainment.
  •         External Focus
  •         Internal Focus
  •         Intermediate Focus


Internal Focus

Sushumna Nadi which is known as Nadi of Brahman exists in the middle of the body with the radiance of Sun and the moon. It originates from Muladhara and extends up to Brahma Randhra. Somewhere in the midway between the two, the celebrated Kundalini exists with the radiance of the multitudes of lightning and in a tender form like a thread of a lotus stalk. The mere sight of it through the mind will make the yogi free from all the sins. If in the exercise of Taaraka Yoga, it is seen through Ajna Chakra constantly, he becomes a Siddha or an adept.

When the two ear-holes are blocked by the tips of the forefingers, a sound resembling “poo” is generated. If the mind is attuned with this and his internal sight is directed towards the centre of the eyes, he sees a blue radiance there. Having seen, he succeeds in internal Focus which results in a bliss of wonderful quality. Likewise in his heart. This is how the internal Focus is practised by the yogi who is seeking liberation.

External Focus

If one sees the colour of blue with a bordering of indigo, then, blood red and orange at the ethereal space in front of his nose at a distance of four, six, eight, ten and twelve Angulas, he becomes an adept.

When he directs his sight towards the ethereal sky or cast his eyes sideways, an adept yogi can see the beam of radiance in resemblance of molten gold in his range of vision.  When such sight is fixed at a distance of 12 Angulas, he becomes immortal. Wherever he is, the radiance is seen over his head.

Intermediate Focus

Here comes the intermediate Focus. At day-break, the yogi sees the disc of the sun with multicoloured beams of fire and the mid-ethereal region without these. He stands with the form identical to mid ether region. By constant practice of this, the ether devoid of qualities ensues. The deep darkness of the ether comes into the lightening radiance of Taaraka form. The ether radiates and shines like a cascade of fire. It shines like the effulgence of thousands of suns. Then the five others, both external and internal, are visible to the Focus of the Taaraka Yogi. On seeing it, he is released from qualities like that the ether. Hence this Focus of Taaraka makes the yogi attain non-mindedness.

Kinds of Taaraka

Taaraka consists of two stages. The first is with mind and the second one being the without mind.

It can also be said that this type of yoga is two-fold on the basis of methods used and goals reached. The former one is Taaraka and the latter one is the Amanasaka or non-mindedness. (Note: Focus is not possible without the mind. We know, Taaraka involves three types of Focuses which result in Non-mindedness. We have to use the mind to attain non-mindedness.)

The Sun and the moon in the universe are reflected in the pupils of eyes. These two pairs of solar and lunar discs as reflected in the eyes should be contemplated as the same with the Sun and moon of the universe. With such contemplation, it is not possible for the play of senses. Hence Taaraka is possible only with e.

Another classification of Taaraka is Murti-Taaraka and Amurti Taaraka. That which involves the sense is Murti-Taaraka and that transcends the eye-brows is Amurti Taaraka. (Note: Murti Taaraka involves mind and senses whereas Amurti Taaraka involves the mind alone). In both cases mind is involved. With Taarakas, the Sat-Chit-Ananda or the Brahman is found. Hence Brahman is knowable by means of Focus with the help of the eye of the mind. It holds good for Amurti Taaraka also. With mind only it is possible to know about Dhakarasa and other minute types of ether. Only by the eyes and mind along with Atman, these subtle perceptions, internal or external, are achieved. Hence Focus with the aid of mind is the prerequisite for the manifestation of Taaraka.

Murti-Taaraka

Radiance manifests when one focuses the sight in between the eyebrows.  This is Taaraka. By conjoining the mind with the radiance, he should carefully lift the eyebrows a little above. This is Murti-Taaraka.

Amurti-Taaraka

Above the root of the palate, a great effulgence of light is there. This should be meditated upon by the yogis which bestow with supernatural powers like Anima and the like.

Shambhavi Mudra

In both of the Focuses, the eyes are devoid of the power of opening and closing. This Mudra is known as Shambhavi Mudra (Mudra of Sambhu or Lord Siva). Being the residence of yogis assuming this Mudra, the Earth has become holy. By their mere look, all the worlds become holy. Those who have got the opportunity of worshipping such yogis become liberated.

The outcome of Internal Focus

The radiance of the Internal Focus is of its own (non-dual) Form. By the instructions of the competent Guru or Acharya, the Internal Focus becomes the radiance of the thousand petalled-lotus (Sahasradala Padma) or the effulgence of Cit (glory of consciousness) hidden in the cavity of Buddhi (Intelligence part of the mind) or the Turya- Chaitanya (the fourth consciousness) abiding in the sodasanta (Note: Sodasanta is the sixteenth end which is situated at the sixteenth Angula from the Crest wherein Turya-Chaitanya resides). It depends on the grace of the Guru.

Who is a Guru or Acharya?

Guru is one who is well-versed in Vedas, is a worshipper of Lord Vishnu, is free from spiteful qualities, knows yoga, stands on the path of yoga, is always in yoga, is a pure one, has the devotion to his Guru and has special knowledge of Purusa.

The syllable “Gu” indicates darkness and “ru” indicates dispeller. Guru, being the dispeller of darkness, is named as such.
Guru is Brahman only. He alone is the Supreme goal. He alone is the wisdom that transcends. He alone is the last resort.

He alone is the limit at the extreme end. He alone is the greatest wealth. For the reason that he teaches THAT (the non-dual Brahman), he is considered as being greater than all the Gurus.

Benefits of studying this Upanishad


One, who causes to read this Upanishad even once, is delivered from the cycle of births and deaths. At once, all of his sins accumulated over the births are destroyed. The desires of his heart become a reality. He who knows this attains the ultimate aim of the human existence.

Ref: Sanskrit Documents/Advayataraka Upanishad



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